Cakar Ayam (Selaginella doederleinii)


1. Name of Plant


Local name: Rumput solo, Cemara kipas Gunung (Dalimartha, 1999).


2. Classification of Plants


Division : Pteridophyta
Class : Lycopodiinae
Order : Selaginellales
Family : Selaginellaceae
Genus : Selaginella
Species : Selaginella doederleinii Hieron (Hutapea, 1999).


3. Morphology of plants
Stems straight, height 15-35 cm, root branching out on. Small leaves, length of 4-5 mm wide and 2 mm, oblong shape, tapered tip, flat base,upper leaf color dark green, light green bottom. The leaves are arranged on either side of the trunk mainsup to the branches that resembles chicken scratchwith scales (Dalimartha, 1999). Cakar Ayam has habitus terna, creeping, slightly upright. Stems round, clay, branching like a fork, without secondary growth and brownish white. Single leaf, arranged in a line along the trunk, face, 1-2 mm long, smooth and green. Spores 28 in the form of reduced sporangium in the armpit leaves and white. Root fibers, which arise from the leafless stems and blackish brown (Hutapea, 1999).


4. Habitat Spread
S. doederleinii Hieron.
grows wild along the edges of streams, wet cobblestonesand in the wet cliff wall, from a height of 400-750 meters above sea level(Hutapea, 1999).


5. Chemical Ingredients and Uses
S. doederleinii Hieron plants
reported to contain alkaloids, saponins and phytosterols (Dalimarta, 1999). Ethanolic extract Selaginella doederleinii Hieron. reported to contain lignans five components, namely(-)-lirioresinol A, (-)-lirioresinol B, (+)-wikstromol, (-)-nortracheloside, (+)- matairesinol. It also contains two components fenilpropanonnamely3-hidroksi-1-(3-metoksi-4-hidroksifenil)-propan-1-on, 3-hydroksi-1-(3,5-dimetoksi-4hidroksifenil)-propan-1-on and four biflavonoid namely amentoflavone, 7,7”-di-O-metilamentoflavone,7,4′,7”,4”’-tetra ometilamentoflavone, and heveaflavone (Lin et al., 1994).


This plant is efficacious foreliminating hot and humid, smooth the blood flow, antitoksik, antineoplastic, stop the bleeding (hemostatic) and eliminate swelling. Moreover Selaginella doederleinii Hieron also efficacious for treating coughs, respiratory tract infection, pneumonia, hepatitis, diarrhea, vaginal discharge, broken bones, bleeding and cancer (Dalimarta, 1999).

6. Anticancer research
Previous research states that Selaginella doederleinii Hieron. can inhibit sarcoma and cervical cancerin mice and L cellisolated from human liver cancer (Dalimarta, 1999). In other research mentioned that Selaginella doederleiniiare cytotoxic against murinecells (Lin et al., 1994). Moreover, Selaginella doederleinii reported to have antimutagenic activityagainst salmonella induced carcinogen benzo [a] pyren (Lee & Lin, 1988). Widodo (2006) reported that the chloroform and methanol extractsS. doederleinii toxic to larvaeArtemia salina Leach with valueLC50 in the amount of 216,32 ± 39,63 µg/ml for chloroform extract and223,34 ± 19,64 µg/ml for the methanol extract. Nurwaini (2006) also reported that the chloroform extract, ethanol and ethyl acetate S. doederleinii have potential as antiradicalwith IC50 values ​​of51,24 µg/ml for the ethyl acetate extract, 95,26 µg/ml to extract ethanol and135,75 µg/ml for the chloroform extract.


Dalimartha, S, 1999, Atlas Tumbuhan Obat Indonesia, Jilid I, Trubus Agriwidya, Jakarta.

Hutapea, J.R., 1999, Inventaris Tanaman Obat Indonesia, Jilid V, Departemen Kesehatan RI dan Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan, Jakarta.

Lin., Skaltsounis., Seguin., Tillequin., & Koch, 1994, Phenolic Constituents of Selaginella doederleinii, Planta Medica, 60(2), 168-170.

Lee, H & Lin, J Y, 1988, Antimutagenic activity of extracts from anticancer drugs in Chinese medicine, Mutat-Res, 204(2), 229-34.

Nurwaini, S, 2006, Uji Aktivitas Penangkap Radikal Ekstrak Herba Cakar Ayam (Selaginella doederlinii Hieron.) Penyari Kloroform, Etil asetat, Dan Etanol Berkesinambungan Dengan Pereaksi DPPH Dibandingkan Vitamin E dan Dikonfirmasikan Kadar Fenol Totalnya Dengan Pereaksi Folin-Ciocalteu Secara Spektrofotometri Sinar Tampak, Skripsi, Fakultas Farmasi UMS, Surakarta.

Widodo, E, 2006, Uji Toksisitas Ekstrak Kloroform Dan Ekstrak Methanol Herba Cakar Ayam (Selaginella doederlinii Hieron.) Terhadap Larva Artemia salina Leach Dan Profil Kromatografi Lapis Tipis, Skripsi, Fakultas Farmasi UMS, Surakarta.

Contributors : Siska Andrina Kusumastuti dan Endang Sulistyorini