Mengkudu/Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.)

1. Name of Plants
Morinda citrifolia L has local name : Eodu, mengkudu, bengkudu, (Sumatera) ; kudu, cengkudu, kemudu, pace (Jawa); wangkudu, manakudu, bakulu (Nusa tenggara); and in Kalimantan it is known as mangkudu, wangkudu, and labanan (Wijayakusuma, 1995).

2.Classification of Plants

Division : Spermatophyta
Subdivision : Angiospermae
Class : Dicotyledone
Sub Class : Sympatalae
Order : Rubiales
Family : Rubiaceae
Genus / genus : Morinda
Species : Morinda citrifolia L.

3. Morphology of Plants
This plant is a tree with a height of 4-8 m. Woody stems, round, rough skin, branching monopoidal. Single leaf, oval, tapered tip and base. 10-40 cm long. The flowers plural, head shape, sessile, stamens 5. Fruit hump, irregular surfaces, fleshy, 5-10 cm long, yellowish green (Syamsul hidayat dan Hutapea,1991).

4. Chemical Ingredients

Noni contains scopoletin, rutin, polysaccharides, ascorbic acid, β-carotene, 1-arginin, proxironin, and proxeroninase, iridoids, asperolusid, anthraquinone iridoids, fatty acids, calcium, B vitamins, amino acids, glycosides, and also glucose (Sjabana dan Bahalwan, 2002; Wijayakusuma dan Dalimartha, 1995). It also contained compounds such as, morindon, rubiadin, and flavonoids (Bangun dan Sarwono, 2002).

5. Uses and Benefits

Noni plants, especially fruit has many uses, among others,: for high blood pressure medications, beri-beri, launched urine, inflammation of the kidneys, bladder inflammation, colitis, dysentery, constipation, spleen pain, swollen spleen, liver pain, bloody saliva, diabetes (diabetes mellitus), worms, chicken pox, overweight (obesity), back pain (lumbago), abdominal pain (colic), and abdominal pains due to colds, skin feels rough feet (skin softener), eliminates dandruff, antiseptic, laxative menstruation (emenagog), and blood purifier. Water freshly grated ripe fruit is used to rinse his mouth (gargle) on diphtheria or tonsillitis. Godogan fruit, bark or roots used to wash sores and eczema (Wijayakusuma dkk., 1996).
Noni can inhibit tumor growth by stimulating the immune system involving macrophages and or lymphocytes (Hirazumi et al., 1994). The fruit extract is also proven to be most effective at inhibiting RAS cells that cause cancer among 500 extracts were tested (Hirazumi et al., 1993).Younos et al. (1990) conduct a study on the analgesic and sedative effects of extracts of noni plant and noni extract states that have analgesic activity in a consistent, non-toxic, and depending on the dose. Previous studies showed that among the three fractions methanolic extract of noni fruit tested, ethyl acetate fraction showed the most potent antioxidant activity with IC50 values = 46,7 µg/ml followed by chloroform fraction with IC50 = 227.7 ug / ml, whereas the methanol fraction having IC50 values = 888,6 µg/ml (Abdul dan Sugeng, 2004).


Abdul, R., Sugeng, R., 2004, Aktivitas Antioksidan dan Antiradikal Buah Mengkudu (Morinda citrifolia, L), Laporan Penelitian, lembaga penelitian UGM, Yogyakarta.

Bangun, A.P., and Sarwono, B., 2002, Sehat dengan Ramuan Tradisional: Khasiat dan Manfaat Mengkudu, Agromedia Pustaka, Jakarta.

Hirazumi, A., Furrasawa, E., Chou, S.C., and Hokama, Y., 1994, Anticancer activity of Morinda citrifolia, L on Intraperitoneally Inplanted Lewis lungcarcinoma in syingenic mice, Proc. West Pharmacol Soc, 37, 145-146.

Sjabana, D. and Bahalwan, R.R., 2002, Seri Referensi Herbal : pesona Tradisional dan Ilmiah Buah mengkudu (Morinda citrifolia, L). Salemba Medika, Jakarta.

Syamsuhidayat, S.S and Hutapea, J.R, 1991, Inventaris Tanaman Obat Indonesia, edisi kedua, Departemen Kesehatan RI, Jakarta

Wijayakusuma, H., Dalimartha, S., and Wirian, A., 1996, Tanaman Berkhasiat Obat di Indonesia, Jilid ke-4, Pustaka Kartini, Jakarta.

Wijayakusuma, H., and Dalimartha, S., 1995, Ramuan Tradisional Untuk Pengobatan Darah Tinggi, Penebar Swadaya, Jakarta.

Younos, C., Rolland, A., Fluerentin, J., Lanchers, M., Misslin, R., and Mortier, F., 1990, Analgetic and behavioral effects of Morinda citrifolia, L, Plant Medica, 56, 430-434.

Contributors : Diah Utari, Dewi Nopitasari, Moh. Nur Herman Syah and Endang Sulistyorini, S.P