Sirihan (Piper aduncum L.)

Figure Sirihan

1. Name of Plant

Common name / trade : Seuseureuhan, sirihan
Local name : Seuseureuhan (Sunda)

2. Classification of Plant
Division : Spermathophyta
Subdivision : Angiospermae
Class : Dicotyledonae
Order : Piperaceae
Genus : Piper
Species : Piper aduncum L.

3. Description of Plant


Habitat: plantations, natural forests; lianas, annual. Stem: Woody, ovate, pointed tip, base rounded, flat edge on each book, downy stalks, cylindrical 5-10 mm, length of leaves 10-14 cm long, 5-6 cm wide, pertulangan such as fingers, light green. Flowers: Compound, shape jar, unisexual or two, leaves a protective stemmed from 0.5 to 1.25 mm, curved, stalk short stamens, anthers small, ovary sit, anthers two to three, short, white, yellowish white. Fruit: bacca, short-stemmed, long-grain 12-14 cm, a young yellow-green, after old green. Seed: small, brown. Root: taproot, brownish white (Syamsuhidayat dan Hutapea, 1991).

4. Chemical Ingredients and Efficacy of plant

Leaves Piper aduncum contain saponin, flavonoida, polifenol, minyak atsiri, dihydrochalcone, piperaduncin A, B, and C, also 2′,6′-dihidroksi-4′-metoksidihidrokhalkon (DMC) dan 2′,6′,4-trihidroksi-4′-metoksidihidrokhalkon (asebogenin) (Orjala, 2004).


Figure. Piperaduncin B

Figure. DMC (2′,6′,-dihydroxy-4′-methoxychalcone)

Figure. Asebogenin (2′,6′4,-trihydroxy-4′-methoxychalcone)

Stem sap Piper aduncum efficacious as a cure ulcers and new sores drugs. For ulcer drug, used stem sap Piper aduncum ± 2 ml, then applied to boils.

5. Research Compound Chalcone
Chalcone and its derivates are group reported to show promising anticancer activity. These compounds are precursor of flavonoids and isoflavonoids abundant in crops. Previous research suggested that Chalcone and its derivatives have anticancer activity in several cancer cells. Chalcone natural and synthetic showed strong antiproliferative effect on ovarian cancer cells and in gastric cancer cells HGC-27 (Achanta, et al., 2006). Hydroxyl Chalcone and isoliquiritigenin showed a strong inhibitor on skin carcinogenesis in vivo. Some research indicates that Chalcone also act as a chemoprevention agent, capable of inhibit carcinogenesis induced by chemical agents through increasing levels of reduced glutathione. However, the exact mechanism of the compound Chalcone in tumor cells is still being revealed. It has been proposed that isoliquiritigenin inhibit the proliferation of lung cancer cells A549 by stopping the cell cycle phase G2/M and induce p21 expression. Research on HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma showed that chalcone and its derivates inhibited tyrosine kinase activity specificly inhibited EGFR. Mechanism action of hydroxyl chalcone have proposed as inducer of radical prooxide formation in rats hepatocyte in vivo study (Achanta, et al., 2006).

Daftar pustaka

Achanta, G., Modzeleska , Feng, Li, Khan, S.R., Huang, P., 2006, A Boronic-Chalcone Derivative Exhibits Potent Anticancer Activity through Inhibition of the Proteosome, Mol Pharmacolgy, 70:426-433

Orjala, J., Wright A.D., Behreds, H., Folkers, G., Sticher, O., Ruegger, H., Rail, T.(1994).’Cytotoxic and Antibacterial Dyhidrohalcones from Piper aduncum’, J. Nat. Prod., Jan;57(1):18-26

Syamsuhidayat, S. S., dan Hutapea, J. R., 1991, Inventaris Tanaman Obat Indonesia (I), Departemen Kesehatan RI, Jakarta, page 452-453

Kontributor : Sarmoko, Ika Dyaning Ratri, Rifki Febriansah, A. Fauzi Ramadhon, dan Rina Maryani

Editor: Endang Sulistyorini S.P