Ceremai (Phyllanthus acidus (L.) Skeels)


Ceremai (Phyllanthus acidus [L.] Skeels)

1. Name of Plant

Indonesia:       Ceremai, cereme

Foreign Language: Otaheite gooseberry, malay gooseberry (Inggris), Cermai (Melayu), Ma-yom (Thailand).

2. Classification:
Division : Spematophyta
Subdivision : Angiospermae
Class : Dicotyledoneae
Order : Euphorbiales
Family : Euphorbiaceae
Genus : Phyllanthus
Species : Phyllanthus acidus (L.) Skeels

3. Description of Plant

Habitus : tree, height ± 10 cm. Stems: upright, rounded, woody, brittle, coarse, branching monopodial, light brown. Leaves: compound, oval, alternate, 5-6 cm long, 2-3 cm wide, flat edge, pointed tip, base obtuse, bone pinnate, smooth, cylindrical stalk, ± 2 cm long, light green. Flowers: Compound, round, in twigs, stems cylindrical, ± 1 cm length, light green, star-shaped petals, subtle, pink crown. Fruit: round, grooved surface, whitish yellow. Seeds: flat round, light brown. Roots: riding, light brown (Hutapea, 1994)

4. Chemical Ingredients and Benefits

Leaves, bark, and wood contains saponins, flavonoids, tannins, and polyphenols. The roots contain saponins, galus acid, tannic substances, and toxic substances. The fruit contains vitamin C.

Leaf efficacious as a laxative sputum, laxative (purgatif), nausea, cancer, and ulcers. Skin efficacious overcome asthma and sore skin. Root bark and fruit efficacious as a laxative. Seeds to treat constipation and nausea.

In Thailand, plant root used as a rehabilitation of a person who is addicted to alcohol. This treatment is very effective, but it turned out to cause chronic adverse effects are quite serious.

Vongvanich et al (2000) reported the discovery of glycoside compounds Norbisabolane namely Phyllanthusols A and B yang are cytotoxic against BC and KB cell lines. Phyllanthusols A (1) and B (2) showed cytotoxicity against BC (EC50 in 4.2 and 4.0 μg/mL for 1 and 2, each one) and KB (EC50 in 14.6 and 8.9 μg/mL for 1 and 2, respectively) cell lines, whereas the aglycone 3, and saccharides 4 showed no toxic effects. These compounds present in plantswith levels high enough(ca. 1 mg/g wet weight) and compounds cytotoxic glycosides norbisabolane g 1 at the root P. acidus, which may be responsible for chronic disease when someone drinking root extracts of this plant.


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