Temu Putih (Curcuma zedoaria)

Temu Putih (Curcuma zedoaria Rosc)

1. Name of Plant

In Indonesia called temu putih, temu kuning.

Region name: koneng tegal (Sunda), temu pepet (jawa)

Synonym: Curcuma paliida Lour (Heyne, 1987)

Foreign name: White Tumeric (Inggris), Kencur or Ambhalad (India), and cedoaria (Spanyol), Er-chu (China).

2. Classication of Plants
Division : Spermatophyta
Subdivision : Angiospermae
Class : Monocotyledonae
Order : Zingiberales
Family : Zingiberaceae
Genus : Curcuma
Species : Curcuma zedoaria (Berg.) Rosc. (Backer and Van den Brink, 1968).

3. Morphology of Plants
This plant is an annual herb, height reach 2 m, not grow in groups. Lancet-elongated shaped leaves purple color along the spine center. Flowers out of the side rhizome, rises up to form a large flower weevil. Petals are white, with the edge of the thin red or yellow striped. The rhizomes are white or light yellow, it tasted very bitter (Windono et al, 2002).

4. Habitat and Deployment

Curcuma zedoaria (Rosc),  according to Hong, Kim, Lee, this plant comes from Himalaya, India, and mainly distributed in Asian countries include China, Vietnam, and Japan. Curcuma zedoaria (Rosc) growing wild in Sumatra (Gunung Dempo), in the teak forest Jawa Timur, often found in Jawa Barat and Jawa Tengah, in the altitudes up 1000 asl (Windono et al, 2002).

5. Chemical Content and Benefits

Traditionally used as an antimicrobial and antifungal (Witson et al., 2005). Shiobara et al. (1985) identify compounds cyclopropane sesquiterpene, curcumenone and 2  spirolactones, curcumanolide A and curcumanolide B. At the young shoots of C. zedoaria contain  (+)-germacrone-4,5-epoxide, a key intermediate in biogenesis a germacrone-type sesquiterpenoids. In Brazil, used as a febrifuge. This activity is due to the chemical compounds responsible for that curcumenol (Navvaro et al., 2002). Chemical content of rhizome Curcuma zedoaria Rosc consist of : curcuminoid (diarilheptanoid), essential oils, polysaccharide as well as other groups. Diarilheptanoid which has been known include: curcumin, demetoksikurkumin, bisdemetoksikurkumin, and 1,7 bis (4-hidroksifenil)-1,4,6-heptatrien-3-on (Windono dkk, 2002).
Essential oils such as golden yellow viscous liquid containing: monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. monoterpenes consist of : monoterpene hydrocarbons (alpha-pinene, D-kamfen), monoterpene alcohol (D-borneol), monoterpene ketones (D-kamfer), monoterpene oxides (cineol). Sesquiterpenes in Curcuma zedoaria consist of various group and based classification which conducted consisting of : group bisabolen, Elema, germakran, eudesman, guaian and spironolactone group. Other content includes: ethyl-p-methoxycinnamate, 3,7- dimetillindan-5-carboxylic acid (Windono et al, 2002).

Singh et al (2002) reported the content of essential oil in Curcuma zedoaria in the form 1,8 cineol (18.5%), cymene (18.42%), α-phellandrene (14.9%).

Group sesquiterpenes are β-Turmerone and ar-turmeron isolated from the rhizomes Curcuma zedoaria inhibit the production of prostaglandins E2 lipopolysaccharide-induced (LPS) in cultured rat macrophage cells RAW 264.7 with a dose-dependent pattern (IC50 = 7.3 μM for β-turmerone; IC50 = 24.0 μM for ar-turmerone). These compounds also showed the inhibitory effect of nitric oxide production which induced LPS in the cell system (Hong et al., 2002).

Antioxidant Activity
Compounds that act as antioxidants possibility is 5-isopropylidene-3,8-dimethyl-1(5H)-azulenone (Mau et al., 2003).

6. Anticancer Research
In Chinese medicine, Curcuma zedoaria have been used in the treatment of cervical cancer.

Water extract of C. zedoaria showed antimutagenic activity against induced mutations benzo[α]pyrene in Salmonella/microsomal system (Lee and Hin, 1988).

Polysaccharide and protein-bound polysaccharide C. zedoaria showed inhibition on sarcoma-180 and Echrlich ascites tumors in mice, sequentially (Mon et al, 1985). Further, 2 sesquiterpene derivatives (curcumol dan curdione) from C. zedoaria showed cytotoxic against sarcoma-37, Echrlich ascites tumor, and cervical carcinoma-U14 in mice.

Polysaccharide fraction, CZ-1-III decrease the size of tumors in mice and prevent chromosomal mutations (Kim et al., 2000).

Ethanol extract of the rhizome Curcuma zedoaria showed inhibiting activity of cells OVCAR-3 (Cell line of human ovarian cancer). Isolation which monitored with bioactivity barriers against OVSCAR-3 cells produce active compounds demetoksicurcumin (Syu et al., 1998).
The ethanol extract 70% turmeric showed inhibition in normal cells and cytotoxic to lymphoma cells at concentrations 0,4 mg/ml. Ethanol turmeric extract also showed inhibition of the mitotic phase in mammalian cells in in vitro by inhibiting the formation of chromosomal (Mills and Bone, 2000).

Contibutor: Sarmoko

Last update: Nov 2010

Source of figure: obtrando blog