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Jinten / Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.)

jinten-pohon.jpg biji-jinten.jpg

 

Jinten putih / White cumin(Cuminum cyminum L.)

 

1. Name of Plant

 

Name cumin for each region in Indonesia is:
Jintan Putih (Indonesia), Jinten Putih (Jawa), Ginten (Bali); Jinten Bodas (Sunda), Jhinten pote (Madura); Jeura engkut, Jeura putih (Aceh), Jinten pute (Bugis).

 

2. Classification of Plants

 

Cuminum Cyminum L. known as Cumin seeds. The classification of this plant are as follows:
Kingdom : Plantae
Subkingdom : Tracheobionta
Division : Magnoliophyta
Class : Magnoliopsida
Subclass : Rosidae
Order : Apiales
Family : Apiaceae / Umbelliferae
Genus : Cuminum
Species : Cuminum Cyminum L.

 

3. Morphology of Plants

 

Plant cumin is a plant herb, 1.5 to 5 meters high. Striped stem and hairy. Ribbon-shaped, 3-10 cm long. Umbrella-shaped flowers, flower crown length 1 mm, white or red. Long pieces of 5 mm-7, and a width of 3 mm. These plants have stems and leaves of wood composite circular and stacked. Cumin leaves have leaf midrib like small twigs. Cumin leaf shape sheet intangible, but more like the threads of a rigid and short. The dominant color of this plant is green and the flowers are small dark yellow supported by a rather long stalk(Heyne, 1987).

 

4. Habitat and Spread
Cumin can grow well in cool climates,such as in areas of northern India near the foot of the Himalayas, in addition, there are also many in Mexico, and Thailand. In Indonesia, although it can grow, generally less good (Ipteknet, 2005).

 

5. Chemical Ingredients
These plants contain essential oils, luteolin, apigenin, fatty oils, hans, and tanning substances. Cumin seeds contains elements of vaporized oil (fly) by less than 8%. The main components of the oil evaporate and is cuminal Safranal (some 32% and 24%). Another component that contains more than 1% were monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, aromatic aldehydes and aromatic oxides.Other components are small in number areterpen, terpenol, terpenal, terpenon, ester terpen, and aromatic components(Sahelian, 2005).
Components are suspected of having anticarcinogenic activity ofCuminum Cyminum L.one of which is a glycoside lactone compoundssesquiterpen (Takayanagi et al., 2003). Form of the compound is a glycoside that has the character can dissolved in a solvent which is relatively polar one of which is ethanol. Therefore, the process of extraction with ethanol can dissolve glycoside compounds of cumin seeds.

6. Research
Based on the results of preclinical testing, it can be concluded thatCuminum Cyminum L.have antibacterial properties, anticarcinogenic, antigenotoxic, antihiperglikemia, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antispasme, carminative, digestive, larvasidal(Takayanagi et al., 2003).
A research has shown that Cuminum Cyminum L.seedcan inhibit tumor growth in gastric and cervical tumors in rats due to giving benzo [a] pyrene(Gagandep et al., 2003). In that research, Cuminum Cyminum L. given to test animals that previously had cancer induced by B [a] P in the form of whole grains in the food of test animals. The mechanism of inhibition of tumor growth by Cuminum Cyminum L.seedaccording to that research is through the induction of enzymes involved in the metabolism of phase I and phase II, include cytochrom p450, Glutathione-S-transferase, and cytochrome b5, as well as several enzymes catalase(Gagandep et al., 2003).
In another study conducted byNalini (1998), proved thatcumin able to protect the colon from carcinogens compound 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine (DMH).DMH causing an increase in beta activity glukoronidase, which was followed by an increase glukoronida conjugate hydrolysis process. Consequently can trigger the release of toxins. Cumin able reduce the activity of beta glukoronidase, so as to prevent the release of toxins which are also expressed in several types of cancer.



References:

Gagandeep, Dhanalakshmi S, Mendiz E, Rao AR, Kale RK, 2003, Chemopreventive effects of Cuminum cyminum in chemically induced forestomach and uterine cervix tumors in murine model systems, Nutr Cancer;47(2):171-80

Heyne, K., 1987, Tanaman Berguna Indonesia, jilid II, cetakan pertama, 1073-1074, diterjemahkan oleh Badan Litbang Departemen Kehutanan, Yayasan Sarana Wana Jaya, Jakarta.

Nalini, Sabitha, Viswanathan, Menon, 1998, Influence of Spices on the Bacterial (Enzyme) Activity in Experimental Colon Cancer, J Ethnopharmacol, 62(1): 15-24.

Sahelian, R., M.D.,2005, Cumin, diambil dari http://www.raysahelian.com/cumin.html, diakses September 2005

Takayanagi T, Ishikawa T, Kitajima J, 2003, Sesquiterpene lactone glucosides and alkyl glycosides from the fruit of cumin, Phytochemistry, 63(4):479-84

Contributors :

Ahmad Fauzi Romadhon, Marlyn Dian Laksitorini, Yudi Afrianto, Muhammad Yusuf Putro Utomo, Wynanda and Endang Sulistyorini