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Sambung Nyawa (Gynura procumbens)

Gambar 1. Tanaman Gynura procumbens

1. Name of plant

In Indonesia, this plant has some local name like; daun dewa (Melayu) (Heyne, 1987; Wijayakusuma et al., 1992), sambung nyawa dan ngokilo (Jawa) (Thomas, 1989).

2. Classification of plant

Division : Spermatophyta
Subdivision : Angiospermae
Class : Dicotyledonae
Order : Asterales (Campanulatae)
Family : Asteraceae (Compositae)
Genus : Gynura
Species : Gynura procumbens (Lour.) Merr.
(Backer and Van den Brink Jr, 1965)

3. Description of Plant

Gynura procumbens plant shaped upright shrub if still young and propagate after quite old. If the leaves crushed, it produce aromatic odor. Rectangular trunk jointed, segment length from the base to the tip is getting shorter, green segment with purple spots. Single leaves ellipse shaped lengthwise or egg round inverted or spread, edge of the leaves has a notch and smooth haired. Petiole length ½-3 ½ cm, leave blade length 3 ½-12 ½ cm, width 1- 5 ½ cm. Top leave blade green and the bottom light green and shine. Both of leaves surfaces short haired.  Bone pinnate leaves and prominent in the bottom leaves surface. In each the base of segment there is yellowish green small bud. This plant has flower head, in the flower head there a floral tube colored yellow orange redish brown length 1-1 ½ cm, smells. Each stalk and leave bladde has oil gland cell (Perry, 1980; Van Steenis, 1975; Backer and Van den Brink, 1965; Sodoadisewoyo, 1953).

4. Habitat and spread

Come from tropical Africa region spread to Srilanka, Sumatera and Java. Grow in the yard, field or planted for medicines. Grow until height 500 m above sea level (Pramono, 1996).

6. Chemical Ingredients and Benefit of Plants

Gynura procumbens plant contain flavonoid compound, sterol unsaturated, triterpen, polyphenol and essential oil (Pramono and Sudarto, 1985). Result of the other research  reported thatthis plant contain compound flavonoid, tannin, saponin, steroid, triterpenoid, chlorogenic acid, kafeat acid, vanilat acid, para kumarat acid, p-hidroksi benzoate acid (Suganda et al., 1988), asparaginase (Mulyadi, 1989). Whereas qualitative analysis result using thin layer chromatography method that done by Sudarsono et al. (2002) detect there are sterol, triterpene, phenolic compound, polyphenol, and essential oil. Sugiyanto et al. (2003) also state based research done that in ethanol polar fraction of Gynura procumbens leaves there are three flavonoid group flavon and flavonol. Research by Idrus (2003) mention that  Gynura procumbens contain sterols, glycoside sterol, quercetin, kaempferol-3-O-neohesperidosida, kaempferol-3-glukosida, quercetin-3-O-rhamnosyl(1-6)galaktosida, quercetin-3-O-rhamnosyl(1 -6)glucoside.

Gynura procumbens leaves in some Indonesian people are used as medicine of uterine cancer, breast cancer, and blood cancer with eat 3 fresh leaves a day during 7 days. That treatment can be extended for 1-3 months depend from disease condition (Meiyanto, 1996). This plant is reported can be used for cure kidney disease (Heyne, 1987). Moreover, Gynuraprocumbens also be used as anti-coagulant, liquefy blood clots, circulation stimulation, stop bleeding,  removes heat, cleanse toxic, especially for the leaves can be used to treat swelling of the breast, throat infection, late menstruation, wound hit, smooth circulation (Wijayakusuma et al., 1992). The other benefit of this plant leaves reported by Dalimartha (1999) can to cure kidney stone, inflammation of the eye, toothache, arthritic joint, bleeding womb, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, ganglion, cyst, tumor, bruise.

7. Researches about chemoprevention Gynura procumbens

Scientific evidence about efficacy of this plant through research has been conducted such as Sugiyanto et al. (1993), report there is effect of inhibition carcinogenicity benzo(a)piren (BAP) by traditional preparation of Gynura procumbens plant, research Meiyanto (1996) state that ethanolic extract of Gynura procumbens (Lour.) Merr. leaves can give anti mutagenic effect against rat lung tumor that is caused by BAP. This anti mutagenic properties is also reported by research Sugiyanto et al. (2003), that is mutation inhibition in  Salmonella typhimurium. In in vitro, ethanol extract of Gynura procumbens leaves has IC50 less than 1000 ug/ml in shrimp larvae Artemia salina Leach (Meiyanto et al., 1997). Beside inhibit the carcinogenicity in lung cancer, Gynura procumbens also known can inhibit breast cancer carcinogenicity. Giving of post-initiation ethanol extract Gynura procumbens leaves doses 250 mg/kgBB and 750 mg/kgBB can decrease incidence of rat breast cancer that is inducted with dimethyl benz(a)antrazena (DMBA), decrease total average of nodule each rat (Meiyanto et al., 2004) also qualitatively decrease the expression of COX-2 (enzyme that act as angiogenesis). Research Meiyanto and Septisetyani (2005) state that fraction XIX-XX ESN has cytotoxic effect against cervical cancer cells, HeLa, with IC50 119 μg/ml. that fraction also inhibit proliferation HeLa cells and can induct to occur apoptosis. Further research by Maryati (2006) showed that flavonoid that is isolated from fraction ethyl acetate ethanolic extract Gynura procumbens leaves has cytotoxic activity with IC50 amount 98 μg/ml against T47D cells and qualitatively increase p53 expression and Bax (regulator apoptosis). That result reinforce the research result before both against ethanolic extract or its fractions that aim to chemopreventive effect of Gynura procumbens, as blocking or suppressing. Ethanolic extract Gynura procumbens leaves also reported has antiangiogenic effect (Jenie and Meiyanto, 2006), so that this plant potentially as anti-metastasis, anti-invasion.

References:

Backer, C.A., and Van Den Brink, R.C.B., 1965, Flora of Java (Spermatophytes Only), Vol II, N.V.P, 363-364, 424-425, Noordhoff-Groningen,The Netherlands.

Meiyanto, E., Sugiyanto, and Sudarto, B., 1997, Uji Antikarsinogenik dan Antimutagenik Preparat Tradisional Daun Gynura procumbens (Lour.) Merr., Fakultas Farmasi UGM, Prosiding Seminar Nasional Tumbuhan Obat Indonesia XII, 32.

Perry, L.M., 1980, The Medical Plants of East and Southeast Asia: Attributed Properties and Uses, 94-95, The MIT Press, London.

Sudarsono, Gunawan, D., Wahyuono, S., Donatus, I.A., and Purnomo, 2002, Tumbuhan Obat II, Hasil Penelitian, Sifat-sifat dan Penggunaan, 96-100, Pusat Studi Obat Tradisional, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta.

Suganda, A., Sudiro, I., and Ganthina, 1988. Skrining Fitokimia dan Asam Fenolat Daun Dewa (Gynura procumbens (Luor) Merr), Simposium Penelitian Tumbuhan Obat III, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta.

Sugiyanto, Sudarto, B., and Meiyanto, E., 1993, Efek Penghambatan Karsinogenisitas Benzo(a)piren Oleh Preparat Tradisional Tanaman Gynura sp. Dan identifikasi Awal Senyawa yang Berkhasiat, Laporan Penelitian P4M DitJen DikTi, Fak. Farmasi UGM, Yogyakarta.

Sugiyanto, Sudarto, B., Meiyanto, E., Nugroho, A.E., and Jenie, U.A., 2003, Aktivitas Antikarsinogenik Senyawa yang Berasal dari Tumbuhan, Majalah Farmasi Indonesia, 14 (4), 216-225.

Thomas, A.N.S., 1989, Tanaman Obat Tradisional, 120-121, Penerbit Kanisius, Yogyakarta.

Contributors:

R.I. Jenie, Endang Sulistyorini S.P and Rina Maryani