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Cangkring (Erythrina fusca Lour.)

cangkring1.jpg

Plants Cangkring (Erythrina fusca Lour.)


a. Plant Systematics
Division : Spermatophyta
Subdivision : Angiospermae
Class : Dicotyledonae
Order : Rosales
Family : Papilionaceae
Genus : Erythrina
Species : Erythrina fusca Lour.
(Backer and Bakhuizen van den Brink, 1965)

b. Plant Morphology
Cangkring is plant trees [figure 8] the leaf fall, height 10-20 m, trunked wood, grayish, rough skin surface with sparse branches, equipped with spines that stick (Hutapea et al., 1994). E. fusca Lour. have more spines than Erythrina lithosperma
(Heyne, 1987).
The stem is straight woody, rounded, branching simpodial, spiked sharply and brownish white. Compound leaves of three, egg-shaped with a blunt tip and base, flat edge, 20-30 cm long, 4-10 cm wide, 10-15 cm long stalks. Bone pinnate leaves, glossy green, lateral leaflets smaller than leaves at the tip of the middle (Hutapea, 1994).
Compound flower, young orange, located at the tip of the stem, stalk cylindrical, 2-3 cm long, tubular petals, curved edge, pale green; stamen length of approximately 3 cm, red, kidney-shaped anthers, yellow; pistil stalk cylindrical, length of 3 cm, white, oval anthers, yellow; butterfly-shaped crown, red. Flower-shaped pods, brown. Taproot, brownish white (Hutapea, 1994).

c. Local name
In Indonesia tumbuhan E. fusca has some local name daerah, yaitu Galada ayer (Melayu), Cangkring (Jawa), Rope (Sasak), Kane (Makasar), Rase (Bugis), Ngareer (Samarinda), Cangkering, Dadap cangkring, Dadap rangrang, Dadap cucuk, Dadap duri
(Heyne, 1987 and Mardisiswojo and Rajakmangunsudarso, 1985).

d. Habitat and Spreading
Erythrina fusca Lour. growing in the forest, riparian and other places to a height of 700 m above sea level (Mardisiswojo and Rajakmangunsudarso, 1985). Also living in the marshes and on the banks of river flow
(Backer and Bakhuizen van den Brink, 1965). This plant is spread almost all over Southeast Asia. In Java, there are growing below 700 m above sea level (Heyne,1987).
Spreading this plant is estimated from the dry tropics toward the moist through a dry subtropical regions into a wooded area wet. This type is still expected to live in rainy areas until 10-40 dm at 20-280C and in pH 6-8. This species is able to withstand varying conditions, as in the lowlands, beach, marsh, low soil, rivers, lake edges, etc. (Croat, 1978).
In America, E. fusca spread from Guatemala to the Amazon Bason. While in Panama, this species is only known as a plant originating from tropical wet forest, always grows originated from swampy areas (Croat, 1978).

e. Chemical Ingredients
Each 100 grams of wet leavescontains 60 calories; 81.5 g of water, 4.6 g protein; 0.8 g fat; 11.7 g total carbohydrate; 4.1 g fiber, 1.4 g ash; 57 mg calcium; 40 mg phosphorus, 1.8 mg Fe; 2300 mgequivalent with beta carotene; 0.24 mg of thiamine; 0.17 mg of riboflavin; 6.54 ng niacin, 78 mg of ascorbic acid(Duke, 1983). Leaves, bark, and roots contain saponins and polyphenols, while the roots also contain flavonoids(Hutapea, 1994). Ethanol extract of the leaves and bark cangkringcontains flavonoids, alkaloids and terpenoids(Meiyanto et al., 2003). Chloroform extract of the leaves cangkring(E. fusca) containing group flavonoids, phenolics, and terpenoids, effluent number 30containing flavonoids and phenolic(Wahyuningsih, 2004). Fraction number 30 results fractionation of methanol extract of leaves cangkring(E. fusca) contain alkaloids, saponins and terpenoids(Rahmawati, 2004).

f. Benefits of Plants

E. fusca plant has long been used as traditional medicine.The leaves are used to treat German measles, chicken pox, yaws, itch, substandard breast milk(Mardisiswojo and Rajakmangunsudarso, 1985). Wood after squeezingcan be taken as blood urine or gonorrhea medicine(Heyne, 1987). Decoction of the roots and or barkcan be used as beriberi medicine(Heyne, 1987 and Hutapea, 1994).

g. Previous Research
The content of the compounds contained in the plant cangkringwhich were first isolated is an alkaloid,including erythroidinewhich has long been used as a muscle relaxantin surgery and in the treatment of schizophrenia(Heyne, 1987 and Hutapea, 1994). Research into the ethanol extract of leaves of E. fusca showsactivity as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase(COX) 2 in Raji cells. Constraints on COXwill suppress the conversion of arachidonic acidto prostaglandin (PGE2)thereby increasing the availability of ceramide, potent apoptosis inductor. Furthermore, inhibition of COX 2will suppress the production of PGE2 which decreased the expression of oncogenes anti-apoptosis Bcl-2 (Werdhinindah, 2005).
Methanol extract of the leaves of E. fusca has the abilityto inhibit the enzyme topoisomerase II by in vitro (Sismindari et al., 2001). At the time of the extension of the replication processwhere one day helicase will not be able to open the DNA helixbecause at the ends of the fragmentswhich opened will occur a very tight coil. Therefore, the enzyme DNA topoisomeraseserves to avoid stopping the replication processby cutting the DNA that tightly entwinedthen turn back and reconnect. Inhibition of the enzyme topoisomerase II would stop the process of DNA replicationso can inhibit cell proliferation(Sismindari, 2002).
The results of other studies proveangiogenesis inhibitor activityethanol extract of the leaves cangkringon the membrane of the korio chick allantoic embryo (CAM) bFGF induced(Nurbayani, 2003). Angiogenesis provide a supply of nutrientsand oxygen on the new tissue. If there is inhibition of angiogenesis, the cancer cells will undergo deathdue to lack of nutrientsfor their survival. The content of flavonoids also possible anticancer effectsto react directlywith carcinogenic metabolites and detoxifies(Cassady et al., 1990).
Based on studies that have been conducted by CCRC, petroleum ether extract of leaves cangkring have antiproliferative effects against HeLa cellswith IC50 of 62.11 μg / ml(Setyowati, 2004), cangkring methanol extract of the leaves has a price IC50 of73,88 μg/ml (Dhiani, 2004) and Puspitasari (2004) reported IC50 prices cangkring leaf chloroform extract against HeLa cells was 16,11 μg/ml, while the number 30 has a fraction of the price IC50 of 5,00 μg/ml.

References:

Backer, C.A., 1965, Flora of Java II.P.Noordhoff, Groningen

Cassady, J.M., Baird, W., and Chang, C.J., 1990, Natural Products as a Source of Potential Cancer Chemotherapeutic and Chemopreventive Agents, Journal of Natural Products, 53 (1): 34

Heyne, K., 1987, Tanaman Berguna Indonesia, jilid II, cetakan pertama,diterjemahkan oleh Badan Litbang Departemen Kehutanan, Yayasan Sarana Wana Jaya, Jakarta, p. 1029

Contributors: Agus Setiyawan, Agustina Setiawati, Titi Ratna Wijayanti, Adam H dan Endang Sulistyorini S.P