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Awar-awar (Ficus septica)

Figure 1. Plants awar-awar (Ficus septica Burm. F.)

1. Name of Plant

Name of area: Kiciyat (Sunda),  Awar-awar (Jawa Tengah, Belitung), Barabar (Madura),  Sirih popar (Ambon), Bei, Loloyan (Minahasa); Tobotobo (Makasar); Dausalo (Bugis); Bobulutu (Halmahera Utara); Tagalolo (Ternate) (Hutapea, 1991).

Foreign name: Papua Nugini : Omia (Kurereda), Manibwohebwahe (Wagawaga, Milne Bay), Bahuerueru (Vanapa); Filipina: Hauili (Filipino), Kauili (Tagalog), Sio (Bikol).

Simplicia name is Fici septicae folium (daun awar-awar).

2. Classification of Plants

Division: Spermatophyta

Sub division: Angiospermae

Class: Dicotyledonae

Order: Urticales

Family: Moraceae

Genus: Ficus

Species: Ficus septica Burm. F. (van Steenis, 1975)

 

3. Description of Plant

Trees or high shrubs,straight1-5 meters. Crooked main stem, soft, twigs round cylindrical, hollow, bare, gummy clear. Leverage a single leaf, large, very pointy, single leaf, stemmed, sitting leaves alternate or opposite, stemmed2,53 cm. Strands of ovalor ellipse, with a rounded base, narrows quite blunt tip, flat edge, 9-30 x 9-16 cm, from the top of a shiny dark green, with many pale spots, from under a light green, left and right side of the central veinswith 6-12 bone leaves aside; both sides of the veins strikingbecause the color is pale. compound flower arrangement pot in pairs, short-stemmed, at the base with 3 protective leaves, light green or gray green, diameter less1,5 cm, in some plants there are male flowers and flower gal, female flowers on another. Fruit type pot, beefy , gray green, diameter 1,5-2 cm. Flowering from January to December. These plants are found in Javaand Madura; grown in areas with altitude1200 m above sea level, commonly found in roadside, scrub and open forest.

4. Ingredients and Benefits of Plants

LeafFicus septica containing compoundsflavonoid genistin and kaempferitrin, kumarin, phenolic compounds, pirimidin and alkaloid antofin, 10S,13aR-antofin N-oxide, dehidrotylophorin, ficuseptin A, tylophorin, 2-Demetoksitylophorin, 14α-Hidroksiisotylopcrebin N-oxide, saponin triterpenoid, sterol (Wu et al., 2002 cit Lansky et al., 2008, Yang et al., 2005, Damu et al., 2005). The roots contain sterolsand polifenol (Hutapea, 1991). Alkaloid containedon the trunk, among othersis fenantroindolisidin(ficuseptin B, ficuseptin C, ficuseptin D, 10R,13aR-tylophorin N-oxide, 10R,13aR-tylocrebrin N-oxide, 10S,13aR-tylocrebrin N-oxide, 10S,13aR-isotylocrebrin N-oxide, and 10S,13aS-isotylocrebrin N-oxide (Damu et al., 2005). The leaves and roots contain stigmasterol and β-sitosterol. The leaves and stems containalkaloid isotylocrebin dan tylocrebin (Wu et al., 2002 cit Lansky et al., 2008).

The leaves are used for skin disease drug, appendicitis, overcome ulcers, rattlesnake bite and shortness of breath. The roots are used to counteract the poison fishand prevention of asthma. Juice of water from the roots collision awar awarand adas pulowaras can be used to treat fish poisoning, gadung (Dioscorea hispida dennst) and kepiting. If pounded with a handful of roots of the weedsand the water is squeezeda drug that causes vomiting very potentDrugs used for ulcer± 5 grams fresh leaves Ficus septica, pounded until creamed, then placed on a boil. The sap is used to overcome the swellingand headache. Fruit for laxative.

Figure3. The chemical structure of the compound contentFicus septica. The content of alkaloids in the form of compounds antofin (1), 2-Demethoxytylophorine (2), Isotylocrebine (3),  Tylocrebine (4),Tylophorine (5), 10S,13aR-anofine N-oxide (6), Dehydrotylophorine (7), dan Ficuseptine A (8), kandungan flavonoid berupa kaempferitrin (10) and genistin (11), and coumarin compounds(9) (Wu et al., 2002 cit Lansky et al., 2008).

5. Anticancer research

Fenantroindolisidin alkaloids in the leaves Ficus septica have a cytotoxic effect on cancer cells. Cytotoxic activity fenantroindolisidin components showed potent high valuein cell lines carcinoma KB-VI (multidrugs resistance cell) and KB-3-1 (sensitive cell). One of the components fenantroindolisidin in 6-O-desmethylantofine from Tylophora tanakae has IC50 7 ± 3 nM for KB-3-1cells and IC50 10 ± 4 nM for KB-VI cells (Staerk et al., 2002)Stem Ficus septica were shown to contain alkaloidsfenantroindolisin have cytotoxic activity against cancer cells of nasopharyngealHONE-1 (human nasopharyngeal carcinomaand gastric cancer cells NUGC (human gastric cancer(Damu et al., 2005).  Research Yang et al. (2005) mention the leaves of this planthave anti-inflammatory effectsthrough inhibitioninducible nitic oxide synthase (iNOS) and the enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2).

Ethanolic leaf extractFicus septica give cytotoxic effectagainst breast cancer cellsT47D with IC50 59 µg/ml (unpublished data, CCRC). Isoflavonoids genistin have cytotoxic activitythrough pacing apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells, SV-OV-3. Isoflavonoids genistin induces apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells SK-OV-3 through increased activity caspase 3 (Choi et al., 2006). Coumarin umbellipreninand phenolic compounds resveratrolknown to have cytotoxic activity on cell MCF7 ( Lim et al., 2008; Guisado et al., 2002). Research Chu et al. (2001) provecoumarin eskuletin able to induce apoptosisand decreased the expression of proteins Bcl-2 until 58% in leukemia cells HL-60 during incubation9 jam. Research Guisado et al. (2005) stated thatphenolic compound resveratrolinduce apoptosis throughdown-regulation NFκB the inhibition of signaling pathwaysPI3K/Akt which resulted in a decrease in protein expression Bcl-2. Triterpenoids Amooranin of tropical plants of IndiaAmoora rohitukainduces apoptosis by decreasing the expression of proteinsBcl-2 andcutcaspase 8, 9, 6, Bid in breast cancer cellsMCF-7 (Rabi et al., 2007).

References :

Choi, J. E., Kim, T., and Lee, M. S., 2007, Pro-apoptotic effect and cytotoxicity of genistein and genistin in human ovarian cancer SK-OV-3 cells, Life Sciences , 80 : 1403–1408.

Chu, C. Y., Tsai, Y. Y., Wang, C. J., Lin, W. L., and Tseng, T. H., 2001, Induction of apoptosis by esculetin in human leukemia cells, Eur J Pharmacol, 416(2):25-32.

Damu, Amooru G., Kuo, Ping-Chung, Shi, Lian Shi, Li, Chia-Ying, Kuoh, Chang-Sheng, Wu, Pei-Lin, Wu, and Tian-Shung, 2005, Phenanthroindolizidine Alkaloids from The Stems of Ficus septica, J. Nat. Pro,. 68:1071-1075.

Guisado, E. P., Barrientos, A. A., Navarro, S. M., Josefat, B. S., and Salguero, P. M., 2002, The antiproliferative activity of resveratrol results in apoptosis in MCF7 but not in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells : cell-specific alteration of the cell cycle, Biochemical Pharmacology, 64, 1375 -1386.

Guisado, E. P., Merino, J. M., Navarro S. M., Benayas M. J., Centeno F., Barrientos A., and Salguero P. M., 2005, Resveratrol-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells involves a caspase-independent mechanism with down-regulation of Bcl-2 and NF-kappaB, Int J Cancer, 115: 74-84.

Lansky, E. P., Paavilainen, H. M., Pawlus, A. D., and Newman, R. A., 2008, Ficus spp. (fig): Ethnobotany and potential as anticancer and anti-inflammatory agents, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 119 : 195-213.

Lim, S., Iranshahi, M., Chollet, P., and Barthomeuf, C., 2008, Umbelliprenin from Ferula szowitsiana inhibits the growth of human M4Beu metastatic pigmented malignant melanoma cells through cell-cycle arrest in G1 and induction of caspase-dependent apoptosis, Phytomedicine, 11: 103.

Rabi, T., Wang, L., Sipra, B., 2007, Novel triterpenoid 25-hydroxy-3-oxoolean-12-en-28-oic acid induces growth arrest and apoptosis in breast cancer cells, Breast cancer research, 101 (1):27-36. [Abstract]

Staerk, D., Lykkeberg, A.K., Christensen, J., Budnik, B.A., Abe, F. and Jaroszewski, J.W., 2002, In Vitro Cytotoxic Activity of Phenanthroindolizidine Alkaloids from Cynanchum vincetoxicum dan Tylophora tanakae against Drug-Sensitive dan Multidrug Resistant Cancer Cells, J. Nat. Prood, 65:1299-1302.

Van Steenis, C.G.G.J, 1975, Flora untuk Sekolah di Indonesia, PT Pradnya Paramita, Jakarta.

Wu, P.L., Rao, K.V., Su, C.-H., Kuoh, C.-S., Wu, T.-S., 2002, Phenanthroindolizidine alkaloids and their cytotoxicity from the leaves of Ficus septica, Heterocycles, Science Japan, 57: 2401–2408.

Yang, Cheng-Wei, Chen, Wei Liang., Wu, Pei Lin., Tseng, Huan Yi., Lee, and Shiow Ju. 2005, Anti-Inflammatory Mechanisms of Phenanthroindolizidine Alkaloid, Mol Pharmacol, 69:749-758, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan.

Contributors: Dewi Arum Sekti, Muhammad Fithrul Mubarok, Ainun Wulandari, Adam H., Endang Sulistyorini

Editor: Sarmoko

Last update: 9 November 2010