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Kamboja / Cambodia (Plumeria acuminate)

1. Local Name

Kamboja, Kamoja, Cempaka malja, Cempaka sabakul (Stenis, 1976).

2. Classification of Plants

Division : Spermatophyta
Subdivision : Angiospermae
Class : Dicotyledonae
Order : Apocynales
Family : Apocyanaceae
Genus : Plumeria
Species : Plumeria acuminate, W.T.Ait
(Backer and Brink Jr, 1965 ; Tjitrosoepomo, 2000)

3. Description of Plant

Plants have frangipani trees with a trunk height from 1.5 to 6 m, crooked, and contains a sap. This American plant is usually grown as an ornamental plant in the garden, parks, and generally in the area of ​​the cemetery, or grow wild. Grown in low-lying areas 1-700 m above sea level. Large branches, leaves tightly in groups at the end of the twig, long-stemmed, lancet-shaped elongated, leaves 20-40 cm long, 6 to 12.5 cm wide, pointed tip, base narrow, flat edge, bone pinnate leaves. Flowers in panicles flat, gathered tip of twigs, small petals, the inside without glands, funnel-shaped crown, the inside haired, reddish or white outer the, the inside slightly yellow, putih atau merah, berbau harum. Pistil stalk short, blunt, width, 1 or 2 ovaries, far from each other, flattened tubular elongate, 18-20 cm long, 1-2 cm wide, lot seed, winged seeds, without tuft of hair, green when young, after old brownish black (Steenis, 1976; Dalimartha, 1999).

4. Chemical Ingredients
Cambodia plants (Plumeria acuminate, W.T.Ait) containing compounds agoniadin, plumierid, plumerat acid, lipeol, and serotinat acid, plumierid include a bitter toxic substance. According to Sastroamidjojo (1967) chemical ingredients of this latex plants are resin and plumeria acid C10H10O5 (oxymethyl dioxykaneelzuur) whereas the skin contain toxic bitter substance. According to  Syamsulhidayat dan Hutapea (1991) root and leaf of Plumeria acuminate, W.T.Ait contain the compound of saponin, flavonoid, and polifenol, furthermore the leaves also contain alkaloid. This plants contain fulvoplumierin, that show power to prevent the growth of bacteria, moreover it also contain essential oil including geraniol, farsenol, sitronelol, fenetilalkohol and linalool (Tampubolon, 1981). Stem skin of Cambodia contain flavonoid, alkaloid, and polifenol (Dalimartha, 1999 ; Prihandono, 1996).

References:

Syamsuhidayat, S. S., and Hutapea, J. R., 1991, Inventaris Tanaman Obat Indonesia (I), Departemen Kesehatan RI, Jakarta, page 452-453

Tampubolon, A.S., 1967, Obat Asli Indonesia, 214-215, Dian Rakjat, Jakarta

Dalimartha, S., dr., 1999, Ramuan Tradisional untuk Pengobatan Kanker, 62-63, Penebar Swadata, Jakarta.

Backer, C.A., Backhuizen van den Brink, R.C., 1965, Flora of Java, Spermatophytes only, Volume I, N.V.P. Noordhoff, Gronigen, The Netherlands.

Tjitrosoepomo, G., 2000, Morfologi Tumbuhan, cetakan ke 12, Gadjah Mada University Press, Yogyakarta

Prihandono, I. W., 1996, Isolasi dan Uji Aktifitas Anti Bakteri Kandungan Daun Plumeria acuminate,.Ait beserta Profil Kromatografinya, Skripsi Fakultas Farmasi Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta.

Contributors :

Adrian and Endang Sulistyorini, S.P