Menu

Papaya (Carica papaya L.)

a. Morphology of Plant
Carica papaya L. is a scrub like a tree with the upright stalk and round. The top can be branch or not, side of that like a spons and hollow, in the outside a lot of leaf scars. The height of the tree around 2,5-10 m, petiole hollow round, the length around 2,5-10 m, round leaf or oval, bone of the leaves are finger shape, serrated edge, sharing such as finger, pointed tip with diameter around 25-75 cm, the top is green, the bottom is light green, slippery, and gloomy, each of three circle stalk trere are 8 leaves. The flowers almost always unisexual or dioecious, but mostly with several hermaphrodite flower in the staminate bouquet. The staminate in the bunches that same with tassel and long stalk, very small petals, the crown like a cream trumpet, with five edge, and long tube, slim, spin edge in the bud, anthers short stemmed, and the pistillate mostly stand-alone, the crown leaves loose and almost loose, cream, ovary tipped one, anthers are five. This plant can be found almost in the whole archipelago. In Java known as kates, in Sunda named gedang, Sulawesi people called with kapaya and in Ambon known as papas.

b.Classification of Plant

 

Division : Spermathophyta
Subdivision : Angiospermae
Class : Dicotyledonae
Sub Class : Sympetalae
Order : Cystales/Parietales
Family : Caricaceae
Genus : Carica
Species : Carica papaya L. (Steenis, 1992)

c. Benefit of Plant
This papaya plants have a lot of benefit and usefulness and have been used traditionally for arthritis and rheumatic in Indonesia and Haiti; asthma and respiratory infection in Mauritius, Meksiko and Filipina; cancer in Australia and Mexico; constipation and laxative in Honduras, Panama and Trinidad; increase the milk production in Indonesia and Malaysia; tumor (Uterus) in Ghana, Indochina, and Nigeria; and syphilis in Africa.
Papain is an enzyme that contained in papaya and has been widely researched benefit. In industry, papain has many usefulness such as in milk clumping process (rennet), decomposition protein process, brewing, tenderizing meat, extraction process of tuna fish liver oil, and clean the silk and wool before coloring (Duke, 1983).

d. Chemical Ingredients

Papaya plants have different chemical Ingredients in the fruit, root, nor the seed. In the fruit contain butanorat acid, butanorat metal, benzyl glucosinolate, linalool, papain, alpha linoleic acid, alpha filandren, alpha terpinen, gamma terpinen, 4-terpineol, and terpinolen. In the leaves contain alkaloid, dehidrocarpain, pesedocarpain, flavonol, benzyl glukosinolat, papain and tannin.
Hundred grams of leaves reported that contain of 74 calories, 77.5 g H2O, 7 g protein, 2 g fat, 11.3 g carbohydrate total, 1.8 g fiber, 2.2 g ash, 344 mg calcium, 142 mg phosphor, 0.8 mg fero, 18 g sodium, 652 mg potassium, 11.565 µg beta carotene, 0.09 mg thiamin, 0.48 mg riboflavin, 2.1 mg niacin, 140 mg ascorbic acid and 136 mg vitamin E (Duke, 1983).

References:

Duke, JA., 1983. Handbook of Energy Crops (Unpublished). www.hord.purdue.edu/newcrop/duke

Steenis, 1992,

Contributors :
Ida Ayu Putu Indah I.A and Endang Sulistyorini, S.P