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Bawang Putih/Garlic (Allium sativum L.)

BAWANG PUTIH/GARLIC (Allium sativum)

1. Name of Plant

Local Name: bawang putih

Foreign Name: garlic (English)

2. Classification of Plants

Division : Spermatophyta
Sub division : Angiospermae
Class : Monocotyledonae
Order : Liliales
Family : Liliaceae
Genus : Allium
Species : Allium sativum L.

3. Description Plants
Habitus : Herba annual (2-4 bulan), tegak, 30 – 60 cm.
Stem: kecil (corpus), 0,5 – 1 cm.
Leaf :
wake the line, compact, flat, wide0,4 – 1,2 cm, the base of the midrib forming tubers, dilated ovoid, buds bulbs, angled, covered by a white membrane, midrib forming the top of the pseudo-stem.
Flower: composition of the compoundsimple umbrella, appears in each bud tubers, 1-3 leaf protectors, such as membrane.
Tent flower: six leaves,free or attaches at the base of, elongated shape, tapered, white-green-purple(Sudarsono et al., 2006).
bulbsAllium sativum L. a compound bulbsalmost circular shape, diameter 4-6 cm consist of 8-20 clovesentirely covered with 3-5 thin membrane similar with papercolored rather white, each of cloves enveloped by2 membrane similar paper, outer membrane colorrather white and somewhat loose, membranes in pinkand attached to the solidof cloves but easy to peel; shape of cloves rounded back section, field side flat or slightly angled.

4. Ingredients and Benefits of Plants

Chemical constituents ofAllium sativum L. which has biological activity and is useful in the treatment isorganosulfur compounds(Martinez, 2007). The content of organosulfur compounds, among others:
a.
CompoundS-ak(en)-il-L-Sistein sulfoxide(ACSOs), examplealliin and γ-glutamilsistein, the most abundant compounds in garlic. Alliin responsible for the odor and flavor of garlic, sulfur-containing amino acids, and used as a precursorallicin. Alliin and other sulfoxide compounds, except sikloalliin, soon turned into a compound thiosulfinat, such as allicin, with the help of the enzyme alliinasewhen fresh garlic chopped, cut, or chewed directly(Amagase, 2006). Alliin has potential as an antibacterial.
b.
Volatile sulfur compounds such asallicin. Allicin a less stable compound, the effect of hot water, air oxygen and alkaline environment, easily decomposed into others sulfur compounds such as diallyl sulfide.
c.
Sulfur compounds fat-soluble such asdiallyl sulfide (DAS) and diallyl disulfide (DADS).
d.
Water-soluble sulfur compounds are non-volatilesuch as S-allyl cysteine(SAC), which is formed from the enzymatic reaction γ-glutamilsisteine when garlic is extracted with water(Amagase, 2001). SAC is present in a wide variety of garlic preparations, are compounds that have biological activity, so the presence of SAC in garlic preparations are often used as the standardthat garlic preparations are suitable for consumption or not(Amagase, 2006).

BulbsAllium sativum L. efficacious as high blood pressure medicine, relieve dizziness in the head, lowering cholesterol and ulcer medicine(Sri Sugati et Hutapea, 1991). Besides its use as ekspektoransia (on chronic bronchitis), karminativa (in the state of dyspepsia and meteorismus) (Hansel, 1991).
Knowledge of the benefitsAllium sativum L. the treatment has been around since 1550 BC, where the Egyptians used garlic to treat a variety of diseases(Yang, 2001).

6.Mechanism of Anticancer Research

Various epidemiological studies that developed states thatAllium sativum L. and a variety of other plants that contain organosulfur compounds can prevent the occurrence of cancer in humans, including colon cancer(Reddy et Rao, 1993).
Other research that reinforces that garliccan be used as a colon cancer chemopreventive doneby comparing between the SAC and the samc contained by garlicin colon cancer cells HT-29 and SW-480. The conclusion that can be drawn from this research is the SAMC can inhibit the growth and resting of cells in the phase G ¬ 2 – Mand induces apoptosis(Shirin et al., 2001).
Garlic is available in the international market is available in four different formsnamely garlic essential oils, maserat garlic oil, garlic powder(known as garlicin), and aged garlic extract (AGE). Research has been done to compare between AGEwith garlic processed form such as raw garlic juice (raw garlic juice), garlic juice is heated, and cook garlic powder.If seen pharmacological action, the more potent AGEin inhibiting the growth of sarcoma-180 cells were transplanted in mice, compared with the shape of the other garlic preparations(Kasuga et al., 2001).
Anticancer effects ofAllium sativum L. also be strengthened by the presence of compared to the analogous organoselenium compoundsorganosulfur compounds. Organoselenium were synthesized in the laboratory, diallyl selenide, 300 times more effective than diallyl sulfide in DMBA induced protects mice in breast cancer. Furthermore benzyl azoxymetana selenosianat can inhibit the induction of colon cancer in mice(El-Bayoumy et al., 2006).

References:

Amagase, H., B.L. Petesch, H. Matsuura, S. Kasuga, dan Y. Itakura. 2001. Intake of Garlic and Its Bioactive Components. The Journal of Nutrition 131:955S-962S

Amagase, Harunobu. 2006. Clarifying the Real Bioactive Constituents of Garlic. The Journal of Nutrition 136: 716S-725S.

El-Bayoumy, K., R. Sinha, J.T. Pinto, and R.S. Rivlin. 2006. Cancer Chemoprevention by Garlic and Garlic-Containing Sulfur and Selenium Compounds. The Journal of Nutrition 136: 864S-869S.

Hansel, R. 1991. Phytopharmaka (Grundlagen und. Praxis). Berlin: Spinger Verlag. Halaman 192-198.

Kasuga, S., N. Uda, E. Kyo, M. Ushijima, M. Morihara, and Y. Itakura. 2001. Pharmacologic Activities of Aged Garlic Extract in Comparison with Other Garlic Preparation. The Journal of Nutrition 131: 1080S-1084S.

Reddy B.S., C.V. Rao, A. Rivenson, G. Kelloff. 1993. Chemoprevention of colon carcinogenesis by organosulfur compounds. Cancer Research 53:3493–3498.

Shirin, H., J.T. Pinto, Y Kawabata, J.W Soh, T. Dolohery, S.F. Moss, V. Murty, R.S.Rivlin, P.R.Holt, and I.B. Weinstein. 2001. Antiproliferative Effect of S-Allylmercaptocysteine on Collon Cancer Cells When Tested Alone or in Combination with Sulindac Sulfide. Cancer Research 61:725-731.

Sudarsono, A. Pudjoarinto, D. Gunawan, S. Wahyono, I.A. Donatus, M. Dradjad, S. Wibowo and Ngatidjan. 2006. Tumbuhan Obat 1. Yogyakarta: Pusat Penelitian Obat Tradisional Universitas Gadjah Mada.

Wargovich M.J. 2006. Diallylsulfide and Allylmethylsulfide Are Uniqely Effective among Organosulfur Compounds in Inhibiting CYP2E1 Protein in Animal Models. The Journal of Nutrition 136: 832S-834S.

Yang, C.S., S.K. Chhabra, J.Y. Hong and T.J. Smith. 2001. Mechanism of Inhibition of Chemical Toxicity and Carcinogenesis by Diallyl Sulfide (Das) and Related Compounds from Garlic. The Journal of Nutrition 131: 1041S- 1045S.

Contributors: Yurista Gilang Ikhtiarsyah, Inna Armandari, Maria Dwi Supriyati, dan Endang Sulistyorini