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Mimba/Neem (Azadirachta indica Juss.)

Daun mimba/Neem leaves (Azadirachta indica Juss.)

1. Name of Plants

Local name : Imba, Mimba (Jawa); Membha, Mempheuh (Madura); Intaran, Mimba (Bali)
Foreign name : Margosier, Margosatree, Neem tree (Inggris/Belanda) (Heyne, 1987).

The scientific name : Azadirachta indica Juss.

2.
Classification of Plants

Division : Spermatophyta
Subdivision: Angiospermae
Class : Dicotyledonae
Subclass : Dialypetaleae
Order : Rutales
Family : Meliaceae
Genus : Azadirachta
Species : Azadirachta indica Juss. (Tjitrosoepomo, 1996)

3. Description of Plants

Is a tall tree trunk can reach 20 m. Thick skin, slightly rough stem, even pinnate leaves, and oval-shaped with jagged edges and tapered, while the fruit is a fruit stone length 1 cm. Neem fruit produced in one to two times a year, oval-shaped, when ripe yellow flesh, seeds covered with skin, hard brown, and attached therein rind white. The trunk is a bit crooked and short, therefore there is no wood in large size (Heyne, 1987).

Neem leaves are arranged spiral, gathered at the end of the chain, a compound leaves, even pinnate. Child leaves an even number the tip of the stalk, the number of strands of 8-16. serrated leaf edges, toothed, beringgit, such as leather leaf blade thin and easily wilt. Wake up children elongated leaves up to half lancet, pointed leaves base child, the child ends pointed leaves and half tapered, bald or slightly hairy. Children 3 to 10.5 cm long leaves (Backer dan Van der Brink, 1965).

Strands child leaves greenish brown, round egg shape is not symmetric elongated crescent shape similar to slightly curved, leaf blade length of 5 cm, width 3 cm to 4 cm. Tapered leaf tip, leaf base oblique, coarsely toothed leaf edges. Bone pinnate leaves, the main branch of the bones, usually almost parallel to each other.


4. Habitat and Spread

Wild plants in the forest and in other places the soil is rather barren, there is also planted the roadside edge as amenity trees (Mardisiswodjo, 1985). Many of the region of West Java, East Java, Madura 1-300 meters. Generally in very dry places, on roadsides, on open forest (Backer dan Van der Brink, 1965).

5.
Chemical Ingredients and Uses
Neem leaves contain compounds include, β-sitosterol, hyperoside, nimbolide, quercetin, quercitrin, rutin, azadirachtin, and nimbine. Some of them have expressed anticancer activity (Duke, 1992). Nimbin containing neem leaves, nimbine, 6-desacetylbimbine, nimbolide and quercetin (Neem Foundation, 1997).

Neem plants have multiple uses. In India this plant is called “the village pharmacy”, where neem is used to cure skin diseases, anti-inflammatory, fever, antibacterial, antidiabetic, cardiovascular disease, and insecticides (McCaleb, 1986).  Neem leaves are also used as repelan, medicine skin diseases, hypertension, diabetes, Anthelmintics, peptic ulcer, and antifungsi. In addition it is antibacterial and antiviral (Narula, 1997).
Steeping the bark is used as a cure malaria. The use of bitter bark is recommended as a tonic. Scratched bark at certain times each year produces large amounts of fluid. This liquid is drunk as a cure gastric diseases in India. The leaves are very bitter, in Madura is used as fodder. Boiled in drinking taste and medicinal plants malaria drug (Heyne, 1987).

7.
Mechanism of Anticancer Research


References:

Duke, 1992


Heyne, 1987

Narula, 1997

Neem Foundation, 1997

Tjitrosoepomo, 1996

Backer dan Van der Brink, 1965, Flora of Java,

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