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Nangka/Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus)

Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus)

1. Name of plant

Local name : Jackfruit

2. Classification of Plant

Kingdom : Plantae
Division : Magnoliophyta
Class : Magnoliopsida
Order : Urticales
Family : Moraceae
Genus : Artocarpus
Species : Artocarpus heterophyllus
(Syamsuhidayat, S.S and Hutapea, J.R, 1991)

3. Morphology of plant

Artocarpus heterophyllus tree height around 10-15 m. The stalk are upright, wooden, round, rough, and dirty green.  A. heterophyllus leaves are single, alternate, ellipse, have bone pinnate leaves, thick leaves meat, flat edge, pointed tip, length around 5-15 cm, width 4-5 cm, long stalk around 2 cm and green. Jackfruit flowers are compound flower that shaped grains, located in axillary and yellow. Male flower and female flower are separated with the stalk that have a ring. The fruits are yellow when ripe, oval, and have light brown seed. (Heyne, 1987).

 

4. Chemical Ingredients and Benefit of Plant
The leaves of this plants are recommended for ayuryeda treatment as antidiabetes drug because the jackfruit extract give a hypoglycemic effect (Chandrika, 2006). Moreover, the leaves of jackfruit tree also can used as breast milk facilitating, sore (external drug), and hurt (external drug). Young jackfruit meat (tewel) is used as  vegetable that contain albuminoid and carbohydrate. Whereas the jackfruit seed can be used as cough medicine and tonic  
(Heyne. 1987). Jackfruit seed can process into flour that used as main ingredient of food industries (mixed food ingredient). The wood efficacy as antispasmodic and sedative, meat of fruit as expectorant, leaves as lactagog. The bark sap also used as drug fever, helminthic and as anti-inflammation. Jackfruit tree can be used as traditional medicine. Chemical compound in the wood are morin, sianomaklurin (tanning substance), flavon, and tannin. Moreover, in the bark also there new flavonoid compound, there are morusin, artonin E, sikloartobilosanton, and artonol B(Ersam, 2001). Its bioactivity has proven empirically as anticancer, antivirus, anti-inflammation, diuretic, and anti-hypertension. (Ersam, 2001).

 

5. Anticancer Mechanism Research

Artonin C, D, I, X, U, L, K, J, T, S; further more click here .



References:

Candrika, 2006, Hypoglycaemic Action Of The Flavanoid Fraction of Artocarpus heterophyllus Leaf, Afr. J. Trad. CAM, 3 (2) : 42-50

Ersam, T., 2001, Senyawa Kimia Makromolekul beberapa Tumbuhan Artocarpus Hutan Tropika Sumatera Barat, Disertasi ITB, Bandung

Heyne, K., 1987, Tumbuhan Berguna Indonesia Jilid II, Badan Litbang Kehutanan, Jakarta

Syamsuhidayat, S.S and Hutapea, J.R, 1991, Inventaris Tanaman Obat Indonesia, edisi kedua, Departemen Kesehatan RI, Jakarta

Contributors :

Bantari Wisynu K.W, Arko Jatmiko, Arum Pratiwi, Ratna, Natasya, Adam H, Endang Sulistyorini S.P and Rina Maryani

Artocarpus heterophyllus tree height around 10-15 m. The stalk are upright, wooden, round, rough, and dirty green.  A. heterophyllus leaves are single, alternate, ellipse, have bone pinnate leaves, thick leaves meat, flat edge, pointed tip, length around 5-15 cm, width 4-5 cm, long stalk around 2 cm and green. Jackfruit flowers are compound flower that shaped grains, located in axillary and yellow. Male flower and female flower are separated with the stalk that have a ring. The fruits are yellow when ripe, oval, and have light brown seed. (Heyne, 1987).

4. Chemical compound and Benefit of Plant
The leaves of this plants are recommended for ayuryeda treatment as antidiabetes drug because the jackfruit extract give a hypoglycemic effect (Chandrika, 2006). Moreover, the leaves of jackfruit tree also can used as breast milk facilitating, sore (external drug), and hurt (external drug). Young jackfruit meat (tewel) is used as  vegetable that contain albuminoid and carbohydrate. Whereas the jackfruit seed can be used as cough medicine and tonic  
(Heyne. 1987). Jackfruit seed can process into flour that used as main ingredient of food industries (mixed food ingredient). The wood efficacy as antispasmodic and sedative, meat of fruit as expectorant, leaves as lactagog. The bark sap also used as drug fever, helminthic and as anti-inflammation. Jackfruit tree can be used as traditional medicine. Chemical compound in the wood are morin, sianomaklurin (tanning substance), flavon, and tannin. Moreover, in the bark also there new flavonoid compound, there are morusin, artonin E, sikloartobilosanton, and artonol B(Ersam, 2001). Its bioactivity has proven empirically as anticancer, antivirus, anti-inflammation, diuretic, and anti-hypertension. (Ersam, 2001).

5. Anticancer Mechanism Research

Artonin C, D, I, X, U, L, K, J, T, S; further more click here .