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Sukun/Breadfruit (Artocarpus communis)

Sukun/Breadfruit (Artocarpus communis)

1. Name of Plant

Region name: sukun (Jawa)

2. Classification of plant
Kingdom : Plantae
Division : Magnoliophyta
Class : Magnoliopsida
Order : Urticales
Family : Moraceae
Genus : Artocarpus
Species : Artocarpus communis (Syamsuhidayat, S.S and Hutapea, J.R, 1991)

3. Morphology of plant
Artocarpus communis (the breadfruit) is a plant from genus Artocarpus in family Moraceae which are common in tropical areas such as Malaysia and Indonesia. This plant can reach a height of 20 meters (Mustafa, A.M., 1998). On the Java island, this plant used as cultivated plants by the community. The fruit is made up of whole petals, round or slightly oblong and used as an alternative food (Heyne K, 1987). Breadfruit is not a fruit in season though usually flowering and fruiting twice a year. The skin of the fruit, yellowish green and there are segments of the polygonal-shaped plot. The polygonal segments can determine the stage of maturity of the breadfruit (Mustafa, A.M.,1998)

4. Chemical content and benefits of plants
Breadfruit contains niacin, vitamin C, riboflavin, carbohydrates, potassium, thiamin, sodium, calcium, and iron (Mustafa, A.M.,1998). In the bark found prenylated flavonoids derivatives, such as artonol B and sikloartobilosanton. Both compounds have been isolated and tested its bioactivity antimitotic on Cdc2 kinase and CDC25 kinase (Makmur, L., et al., 1999). Wood produced from breadfruit plants clean and yellow, both for sawn into boards box, can be used as building materials although not so good. The bark is used as one of the drinks in Ambon to women after childbirth (Heyne K, 1987).
Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds that generally have the structure phenylbenzopyrone (C6-C3-C6). Flavonoids and their derivatives were shown to have relatively high biological activity as a cancer prevention. Various data from laboratory studies, epidemiological investigations, and clinical test in humans have shown that flavonoids provide a significant effect on cancer chemoprevention and chemotheraphy (Ren, W., et al., 2003)


References

Heyne, K., 1987, Tumbuhan Berguna Indonesia Jilid II, Badan Litbang Kehutanan, Jakarta

Makmur, L., et al., 1999, Artonol B dan Sikloartobilosanton dari Tumbuhan Artocarpus teysmanii MIQ, Lembaga Penelitian ITB, Bandung

Mustafa, A.M., 1998, Isi Kandungan Artocarpus communis, Food Science, 9:23

Ren, W., et al., 2003.Flavanoids: Promising Anticancer Agents, Medical research Reviews, Vol 23, No 4, Willey Periodical, Inc, 519-534.

Syamsuhidayat, S.S and Hutapea, J.R, 1991, Inventaris Tanaman Obat Indonesia, edisi kedua, Departemen Kesehatan RI, Jakarta
Contributors : Bantari Wisynu K.W, arko Jatmiko W, Arum Pratiwi, Ratna, Natasya and Endang Sulistyorini S.P