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Jure (N.indicum Mill.)

Jure Plants (N. indicum Mill.)

 

1. Name of Plant

In Indonesia, this plant is known by the name jure (jawa), kenyeri (Bali), kembang mentega, bunga mentega, oleander (Hembing, 1993).

Nerium indicum Mill. often referred to asNerium odorum Soland., included in the familiaApocynaceae.

2. Classification of Plants

Division : Spermatophyta
Subdivision : Angiospermae
Class : Dicotyledoneae
Order : Apocynales
Family : Apocynaceae
Genus : Nerium
Species : Nerium indicum Mill. (Backer and Van den Brink, 1963)

3.Morphology of Plants

This plant comesfrom India(indigenous), grows at an altitude of 1-700 m above sea level, resistant to hot weather and drought. These plants form an upright shrub, 2-5 m high, include an ornamental plant that is planted in the yardand sometimes planted on the roadside. Line lancet-shaped leaves, thick, sessile about 1 cmslightly curved with protruding bones mother.Leaves 7-20 cm long, 1-3 cm wideupper leaf color dark greenand light green bottom, the tip from leaf base and edges tapered flat. Shaped flower panicles at the end of the twig with a funnel-shaped crown, narrow tube at the base, pink and white. Long-shaped fruit with a size of 15-25 cm, round grooved lengthwise with many hairy seeds. Propagation of this plant can be done by stem cuttings (Hembing, 1993; Backer and Van den Brink, 1963)

4. Chemical Ingredients

According to several studies, Nerium sp. planthas been reported to contain neriodorin, carbine, and acid tanat(Perry, 1980), kanerin and acid12, 13-dihidroursolat (Siddiqui et al., 1989), cardiac glycosides(oleandrin) (Boisio et al., 1993), 16-dehidroadinerigenin, neritalosid, dan odorosid (Siddiqui et al., 1997), asam kanerat, asam nerikumarat, asam isonerikumarat, oleanderol, kanerodian, asam oleanderolat, kanerin, and neriuminin (Begum et al., 1997), serta neridiginoside (Begum et al., 1999).

Several activities have been reported among otheras anticancer, diuretic, antiskabies, treat herpes (Perry, 1980), antibacterial, antifungal, expectorant, insecticide, swelling, heart booster (Siddiqui et al ., 1997; Hembing, 1993).

5. Research of Anticancer Mechanism
Nerium sp.
leafempirically been used as an anticancer by the nation of Pakistan(Hartwel, 1982). Research extractNerium oleander (Anvirzel) can induce cell death in human cancer(Pathak et al., 2000) and can inhibit fibroblast growth factor-2(FGF-2) in prostate cancer cell lines(PC-3) and DU 145 (Smith et al., 2001). According to researchof McConkey (2000), stated that compounds belonging to the cardiac glycosides may stimulateCa2+ and increase apoptosis in prostate cancer. Similar research mentions that the cardiac glycoside oleandrin is a derivative kardenolida framework fromOleander (Nerium oleander Mill.)which has been used to treat heart problems in Russia and China (Boisio et al., 1993 ; McConkey et al., 2000). According to research of Manna (2000), stated that oleandrin may stimulate apoptosis through activation suppression of Nuclear Factor-kB (NF-kB), Activator protein-1 (AP-1), c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase inHela cell line. Other studies mention that oleandrin given after cells irradiated with 6 Gy of γ-ray, can increase the activation of caspase-3 in humanprostate carcinoma cell line (PC-3) compared with controls, and also oleandrin without irradiation (Nasu et al., 2002). Further research mentioned that oleandrin has the potential to inhibit the activation of Nuclear Factor-kB and AP-1 in various cell lines, so can inhibit the process of tumorigenesis and inflammatory processes (Sreenivasan et al., 2003). Nerium indicum leafin the form of infusion20% given to white male Wistar rats during30 days did not cause toxic effects, changes (effects on hematology system) that occurred was in the range of normal values (Prasetya et al., 2004). Using the method of extraction, fractionation, and isolation were monitored by BST (Brine Shrimp Lethality Test), oleandrin was isolated from leafNerium indicum , generate valueLC50 = 2,36 x 10-6 M (Wahyuningsih et al., 2000a). Oleandrin also able to inhibit the growth of myeloma cells in a dose1,74 x 10-5 M, proportional to the dose of vincristine sulfate3,4 x 10-5 M (Wahyuningsih et al., 2000b). Oleandrin has cytotoxic effects on several human cancer cell within vitroand most cytotoxic properties oleandrin in breast cancer cells (MCF-7) with a valueIC50= 8,85 nM (Wahyuningsih et al., 2004). The number of cells undergoing apoptosis can be observed by Flow Cytometry, use method of Fluorescein isothiocyanate-annexin V (FITC), it was found that oleandrin able to increase apoptosis of MCF-7 cancer cells along with sample incubation (Wahyuningsih et al., 2005).

Contibutor :

Mae Sri Hartati Wahyuningsih, Endang sulsityorini and Rina Maryani

Photo: sarmoko (depan Fakultas Farmasi UGM)