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Kunyit/ Turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn.)

Figure 1 . Turmeric Plants

 

1. Name of Plants

 Turmeric has various names of different areas including

 Sumatra: Kakunye (Enggano), Kunyet (Adoh), Kuning (Gayo), Kunyet (Alas), Hunik (Batak), Odil (Simalur), Undre, (Nias), Kunyit (Lampung), Kunyit (Melayu)

 Jawa: Kunyir (Sunda), Kunir (Jawa Tengah), Temo koneng (Madura)

 Kalimanta: Kunit (Banjar), Henda (Ngayu), Kunyit (Olon Manyan), Cahang (Dayak Panyambung), Dio (Panihing), Kalesiau (Kenya), Kunyit (Tidung)

 Nusa Tenggara: Kunyit (Sasak), Huni (Bima), Kaungi (Sumba Timur), Kunyi (Sumba Barat), Kewunyi (Sawu), Koneh, (Flores), Kuma (Solor), Kumeh (Alor), Kunik (Roti), Hunik kunir (Timor)

 Sulawesi: Uinida (Talaud), Kuni (Sangir), Alawaha (Gorontalo), Kolalagu (Buol), Pagidon (Toli-toli), Kuni (Toraja), Kunyi (Ujungpandang), Kunyi (Selayar), Unyi (Bugis), Kuni (Mandar).

 Maluku: Kurlai (Leti), Lulu malai (Babar), Ulin (Tanimbar), Tun (Kayi), Unin (Ceram), Kunin (Seram Timur), Unin, (Ambon), Gurai (Halmanera), Garaci (Ternate)

 Irian: Rame (Kapaur), Kandeifa (Nufor), Nikwai (Windesi), Mingguai (Wandamen), Yaw (Arso).

 Foreign name: turmeric

 Synonym : Curcuma domestica Val.

 2. Classification of Plants
Division : Spermatophyta
Subdivision : Angiospermae

Class : Monocotyledonae
Order : Zingiberales
Family : Zingiberaceae
Genus : Curcuma
Species : Curcuma longa Linn. (Syamsuhidayat and Hutapea, 1991)

3. Description of Plant

Habitus: Shrubs, height ± 70 cm.

Trunk: Moot, upright, rounded, forming rhizomes, yellowish green.

Leaf: Single, elongated lanceolate, 3-8 leaves, the tip and base tapering, flat edge, 20-40 cm long, 8 to 12.5 cm wide, pertulangan pinnate, pale green.

Flowers: Compound, hairy, scaly, 16-40 cm long stalk, crown length of ± 3 cm, ± 1.5 cm wide, yellow, cylindrical sheath, bercangap three, thin, purple, leaf base protector recovered, purple.

Roots: The fibers, light brown (Depkes RI, 2002).

 4. Chemical Ingredients and Benefits

 The content of chemical substances contained in turmeric is as follows:
a.
curcuminoid dyes which is a compound diarilheptanoid 3-4% which is composed of Curcumin, dihidrokurkumin, desmetoksikurkumin and bisdesmetoksikurkumin.
b.
Essential oils, 2-5%, which is composed of sesquiterpenes and derivatives fenilpropana turmeron (aryl-turmeron, alpha turmeron and beta turmeron), kurlon kurkumol, atlanton, bisabolen, seskuifellandren, zingiberin, aryl kurkumen, humulen.
c.
Arabinose, fructose, glucose, starch, tannins and resins
d.
Magnesium minerals that is iron, manganese, calcium, sodium, potassium, lead, zinc, cobalt, aluminum and bismuth(Sudarsono et.al, 1996).

Benefits of Plants

The part that is often used as a drug is the rhizome; for, anticoagulants, antiedemik, lowers blood pressure, malaria drugs, de-worming, upset stomach, enrich ASI, stimulant, treat sprains, bruises and rheumatism. Curcuminoids in turmeric efficacious as anti-hepatotoxic (Kiso et al., 1983) enthelmintik, antiedemik, analgesics. Besides curcumin can also function as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant (Masuda et al., 1993). According to Supriya, curcumin also efficacious kill germs and relieve bloating because of the wall of bile stimulated more vigorously to remove fluid solver fat. Essential oils in turmeric could be beneficial to reduce the strong bowel movements so as to treat diarrhea.Moreover, it also can be used to relieve cough and anticonvulsants.

Curcumin
Curcumin (1,7-bis(4′ hidroksi-3 metoksifenil)-1,6 heptadien, 3,5-dion
is an important component of Curcuma longa Linn. which gives a distinctive yellow color(Jaruga et al., 1998 and Pan et al., 1999). Curcumin belonged to the polyphenolic compounds with a chemical structure similar to ferulic acid is widely used as a flavor enhancer in the food industry(Pan et al., 1999). Serbuk kering rhizome (turmerik) mengandung 3-5% Curcumin and two derivatives of compounds in small amounts that is desmetoksi curcumin and bisdesmetoksikurkumin, which is often referred to as the three curcuminoidskurkuminoid (Tonessen and Karlsen, 1995). Curcumin insoluble in water but soluble in ethanol or dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). Degradation of Curcumin depends on pH and is faster at neutral-bases conditions (Aggarwal et al., 2003).

Curcumin can disrupt the cycle of A549 lung cancer cells and suppress cell growth. Suppressive effect depending on the concentration.Effects not only depend on nonspecific cytotoxic, but also from the induction of apoptosis (Zhang, et al., 2004).

Chemical structure of curcumin[1,7-bis-(4'-hidroksi-3'-metoksifenil)hepta-1,6-diena-3,5-dion]

5. Research of anticancer mechanism

Anticancer activity Curcumin telah widely studied using a variety of approaches to various types of cancer both in vitro and in vivo. Curcumin can be developed as potent anticancer drug. anticancer activity Curcumin associated with COX inhibitors as well as his ability on cell signaling pathways, either via pacing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest by affecting the products of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes (Meiyanto, 1999). In addition, associatedalsowithits abilityas an antioxidant, inhibition ofcarcinogenesis, inhibition ofcell proliferation, an antiestrogen, andantiangiogenesis.

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