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Brokoli/Broccoli (Brassica oleracea Var italica)

Figure 1. Broccoli (Brassica oleraceaVar italica)

1. Name of Plant

Indonesia Name: brokoli

Foreign Name: broccoli, sprouting broccoli (English)

Synonym: Brassica oleracea var. italica Plenck

2. Classification of Plants

Division: Spermatophyta

Subdivision: Magnoliophyta

Class: Magnoliopsida

Order: Capparales

Family: Brassicaceae

Genus: Brassica

Species: Brassica oleracea Var italica

3. Description of Plants

The edible part of broccoli is green flower heads that compact such as tree branches with thick rod. Most of the flower head surrounded by foliage. Broccoli most closely resembles cauliflower, but broccoli is green, while the cauliflower is white.

4. Habitat and Spreading

Broccoli is a plant that lives in cold weather. Broccoli comes from the Mediterranean region and has been cultivated since the days of Ancient Greece. These vegetables came into Indonesia recently (around 1970).

5. Content of Plants

Broccoli contains a lot Sulforapan (SFN). Addition from biosynthetic processes in broccoli also produced 3,3-diindolilmetana (DIM). There is also a fat content, protein, carbohydrates, fiber, water, iron, calcium, minerals, and various vitamins (A, C, E, Vitamin, ribofalvin, nicotinamide).

6. Benefits of Plants

Broccoli efficacious accelerate the healing of disease as well as preventing and inhibit the development of cancer cells in the body. Especially cancer associated with hormone, such as breast cancer in women, and prostate cancers that threaten men.

Other benefits, broccoli can prevent stroke. It is proven through research yang conducted epidemiological team from Harvard University. This plant is very well taken people with diabetes. The content of chromium and fiber can regulate blood sugar levels. Broccoli strengthens bone cells. Consume it from young, preventing bone disease (osteoporosis) in old age (Dalimartha, )

7. Anticancer Mechanism Research

Has conducted research to see the effect of the mixture SFN and DIM some variation in the concentration of on the growth of colon cancer cells in in vitro. Comparison of antiproliferative profile of each compound showed that SFN with concentrations above 10 μM is cytotoxic, whereas DIM is cytostatic. While calculations combined effects using the Chou dkk method to a mixture of SFN and DIM shows that the linear regression of the two compounds are not parallel. From these data it is estimated that SFN and DIM inhibits proliferation by different mechanisms. The best combination to inhibit proliferation synergistically obtained in comparison SFN:DIM = 1:1.

Effects cell cycle arrest on SFN, DIM and the mixture. In some types of cancer cells, shown SFN induce cell cycle arrest to phase G2/M, whereas DIM at G1 phase. In this study the use of a mixture of SFN (5 μM) and DIM (5 or 10 μM), shows the same results as the effects of its own SFN that is stopped at phase G2/M. It proves that at low doses antagonistic effect would be obtained on a mixture of SFN and DIM. Whereas if SFN used 10 μM will spur apoptosis in sub-G1. Induction of apoptosis obtained the best mix 10 μM SFN and 10 μM DIM (23,9 ±2,2% sub G1). The increase in sub-G1 fraction will be balanced with the decline phase S as cell growth inhibitory signals.

Combined effects obtained highly dependent on the dose of the mixture SFN : DIM. At low doses, the observed effects are antagonistic, whereas at higher doses provide a synergistic effect. This is most likely due to mechanisms other than cell cycle arrest and pacing apoptosis play a greater role at low concentrations. The use of SFN treatment on low-dose may cause an increase in detoxification against SFN itself, causing onset of antagonist effects. Therefore further research is needed for elucidating the mechanism of interaction from the combination of several kinds of compounds.

Traca et al. (2008) conduct research with providing a diet of 400 grams of broccoli or nuts to 22 men every week. Broccoli is given as much as one to two servings as an adjunct in the diet or their food everyday for a year. Tissue samples were then taken from the their prostate gland before and after the study. The results showed that broccoli changing the activity of genes associated with prostate cancer. This indicates that broccoli-rich diet reduces the risk of prostate cancer and also the possibility to localize cancer before the cancer becomes aggressive.


References:

Dalimartha, S., Buku Atlas Tumbuhan Obat Indonesia Jilid 2,

Traka M., Gasper A. V., Melchini A., Bacon J. R., Needs P. W., Frost V., Chantry A., Jones A. M. E., Ortori C. A., Barrett D., Ball R. Y., Mills R., Mithen R. F., 2008, Broccoli Consumption Interacts with GSTM1 to Perturb Oncogenic Signalling Pathways in the Prostate, Plos One 3 (7) e2568

Pappa G, Strathmann J, Löwinger M, Bartsch H, Gerhäuser C., 2007, Quantitative combination effects between sulforaphane and 3,3′-diindolylmethane on proliferation of human colon cancer cells in vitro, Carcinogenesis vol.28 no.7 pp.1471–1477

Contributors: Sarmoko, Yanni