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Jombang (Taraxacum officinale)

 

Figure 1. Taraxacum officinale Plant

 

1. Name of Plant

 

Local Names: jombang

 

2. Classification of Plants

3. Description of Plants

 

Taraxacum officinaleclumping is a shrub, false or not trunked trunked, taproot, tawny. The leaves are single, sit leaf rosette forming roots, oval, scalloped edges, the base has a midrib, white, bone pinnate, green. Flower-shaped compound, clumping, stemmed, rarely hairy, perforated, grooved and shielded, arranged like scales, head shape, crown shape of the disc, the base thick hair, light green. White tube-shaped fruit. Seeds such as rice, flattened elongated, ribbed velvety smooth haired yellow (Syamsuhidayat and Johny, 1991).

 

3. Chemical Constituents and Benefits of Plants

 

Taraxacum officinalecontaining polysaccharides in large quantities mainly fructose and inulin, pectin in small amounts, peptin, resin and mucilage, and various flavonoids. Three types of flavonoid glycosides namely luteolin 7-glucoside and luteolin 7-diglukosida electrically insulated from the leaves and flowers leaves Jombang(Cordatos, 1992). Taraxacum officinale plants also contain kafeat acid, acid kicorat, pollinastanol, taraksasterol, tarakserol, flavosanthin, lutein 5,6-epoxide, isorhamnetin 3,7-diglukosida, ixerin D, deepoksineosanthin, 11-beta,13-dihidrolaktusin(Taylor and Francais, 1999).

 

Benefit of Plants

 

Taraxacum officinalehave various uses, among others, as antitumor, antineoplastic(Koo et al., 2004 ; Sigstedt et al., 2008), antiinflammatory(Jeon et. al., 2007), cholague (Vogel, 1977), immunostimulatory(Luo, 1993), anti diabetes (Petlevski et al., 2001), antidiuretic(Clare, 2009)

 

5. Research about Taraxacum officinale

Taraxacum officinalehas anti-inflammatory activity, antiangiogenesis through inhibiting the production of nitric oxide (NO) and the expression of COX-2(Jeon et. al., 2007). Inhibition is due to the content of luteolin and luteolin-7-O-glucoside(Chun and David, 2004). At concentrations less than 20 M ethanolic extract of Taraxacum officinale flowers have the ability as an antioxidant in vitro and have cytotoxic activity in Caco-2 cells, and is able to inhibit the expression of NO and PGE2 in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells activated by lipopolysaccharide(Chun Hu et al., 2005). In addition, Taraxacum officinale Extract leaf water decrease the growth of breast cancer cells MCF-7/AZ(Sigstedt et al., 2008). Taraxacum officinale also able to induce apoptosis in Hep G2 cells by secreting TNF α and IL-1 (Koo et al., 2004). Taraxacum officinale pada konsentrasi 100 and 1000 microgram/ml have the effect of sitoktosisitas and cytokine production in cultured hepatoma cells, Hep G2 by showing a decrease in cell viability by 26% and increased expressionTNF-α.and production of IL1(Kim et al., 2000).



References:

Chun Hu and David D. Kitts, 2003, Antioxidant, Prooxidant, and Cytotoxic Activities of Solvent-Fractionated Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) Flower Extracts in Vitro. J. Agric. Food Chem., 51 (1), pp 301–310

Clare B.A., Conroy R.S., Spelman K. 2009. The diuretic effect in human subjects of an extract of Taraxacum officinale Folium over a single day. J Altern Complement Med. Aug;15(8):929-34.

Cordatos E. 1992,Taraxacum officinale. In: Murray M, Pizzorno J, eds. A Textbook of Natural Medicine. Seattle: Bastyr University Press

Hudec J., Burdová M., Kobida L., Komora L., Macho V., Kogan G., Turianica I., Kochanová R., Lozek O., Habán M., Chlebo P.,2007, Antioxidant capacity changes and phenolic profile of Echinacea purpurea, nettle (Urtica dioica L.), and dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) after application of polyamine and phenolic biosynthesis regulators. J Agric Food Chem. Jul 11;55(14):5689-96.

Jeon H.J., Kang H.J., Jung H.J., Kang Y.S., Lim C.J., Kim Y.M., Park E.H., 2008. Anti-inflammatory activity of Taraxacum officinale. J Ethnopharmacol. Jan 4;115(1):82-8. Epub Sep 15.

Kim H.M., Shin H.Y., Lim K.H., Ryu S.T., Shin T.Y., Chae H.J., Kim H.R., Lyu Y.S., An N.H., Lim K.S., 2000. Taraxacum officinale inhibits tumor necrosis factor-alpha production from rat astrocytes. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. Aug;22(3):519-30

Luo Z.H.1993.The use of Chinese traditional medicines to improve impaired immune functions in scald mice.Zhonghua Zheng Xing Shao Shang Wai Ke Za Zhi Jan;9(1):56-8, 80.

Sigstedt S.C., Hooten C.J., Callewaert M.C., Jenkins A.R., Romero A.E., Pullin M.J., Kornienko A., Lowrey T.K., Slambrouck S.V., Steelant W.F., 2008. Evaluation of aqueous extracts of Taraxacum officinale on growth and invasion of breast and prostate cancer cells. Int J Oncol. May;32(5):1085-90.

Taylor and Francis, 1999, Harborne,Phytochemical Dictionary Second Edition, Chapter42

Vogel G. 1977.Natural substances with effects on the liver. In: Wagner H, Wolff P, eds. New Natural Products and Plant Drugs with Pharmacological, Biological or Therapeutic Activity. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag

 

Contributors: Sri Kasianningsih, Ratih Hardika Pratama, Erlina Rivanti

Editor: Sarmoko