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Keladi Tikus/ Rodent Tuber (Typhonium flagelliforme (Lood) Bl)

Rodent tuber (Typhonium flagelliforme (Lood) Bl)

1. Name of Plant

Plant : Typhonium flagelliforme (L.) Bl.

Synonym : Coleus amboinicus Lour. , Typhonium divaricatum (L.) Decne.

Local name : bira kecil, daun panta susu, ki babi, trenggiling mentik, ileus, kalamoyang.

Foreign name : Rodent tuber (Malaysia), Laoshuyu (China)

2. Classification

Division : Spermatophyta

Subdivision : Gymnospermae

Class : Dicotyledonae

Order : Arales

Family : Araceae

Genus : Typhonium

Species : Typhonium flagelliforme (L.) Bl. (Anonim, 2007)

3. Morphology of Plant

Rodent tuber plant is a plants like a taro as high as 25 cm until 30 cm, include of shrub like humid place which is not exposed to direct sunlight. Round shape leaves with heart shaped pointed tip. Fresh green colored. Round flat shape tuber as big as a nutmeg (Harfia, 2006).

4. Habitat and Spread

Growing up in the open places on an altitude of 1000 meters above sea level. There is in Malaysia, southern Korea, and Indonesia. In Indonesia, its spread, found in the islands of Java, Sumatra and parts of Kalimantan and Papua.

5. Chemical Ingredients and Pharmacological Effects

Alkaloid, triterpenoid and lignan (polifenol). The results showed the properties to kill / inhibit cancer cell growth. Eliminate the adverse effects of chemotherapy as well as antiviral and anti-bacterial.

Four compounds have been identified as 1-O-beta-glucopyranosyl-2-[(2-hydroxyloctadecanoyl) amido]-4,8-octadecadiene-1,3-diol (1), coniferin (2), beta-sitosterol (3) and beta-daucosterol (4). A cerebroside, with significant antihepatotoxic activity and phenylpropanoid glycosides isolated from Flagelliforme typhyonium for the first time (Huang et al., 2004).

Chemical ingredients were identified as methyl esters of hexadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid, 9-octadecenoic acid and 9,12 octadecadienoic acid. In addition, several common aliphatic compounds identified as dodecane, tridecane, tetradecane, Pentadecane, hexadecane, Heptadecane, octadecane, nonadecane and Eicosane. Unique compound methyl ester 13-phenyltridecanoic acid isolated and identified using spectroscopic methods. None of the identified compounds show or known have cytotoxic behavior (Choo et al., 2001).

GC-MS analysis Showed that D/F21 hexadecanoic acid, 1-Hexadecene, phytol and a derivative of phytol. The existence of non-saturated fatty acids inside this fraction was confirmed by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (Lai et al., 2008). New compound reported by Lai et al. (2010) that were asam oleat, asam linoleat, asam linolenat, campesterol, stigmasterol and beta-sitosterol.

Various extracts of root, tuber, stem / leaf in the cytotoxic activity on P388 murine leukemia cells using the MTT assay. Chloroform extract (IC50 = 6.0 µg/mL) and hexane (IC50 = 15.0 µg/mL) extracted from the ‘roots and tubers’ showed weak cytotoxic effect. Hexane extract (IC50 = 65.0 µg/mL) of ‘stems and leaves’ showed weaker activity than the chloroform extract (IC50 = 8.0 µg/mL). Although the juice extract from the ‘roots and tubers’ is often used for cancer treatments, but showed weak activity. Further analysis extracts juice containing high levels of arginine (0.874%) determined by amino acid analyzer. High content of tryptopha (0.800%) confirmed by NMR and HPLC analysis (Choo et al., 2001).

Plant part used is the bulbs and the whole plant, leaves to the root, which is best used in the form of fresh juice (juice of plants) and drink immediately after being processed.

6. Research on Rats Taro Plant

Bulbs rodent tuber can inhibit the proliferation of MCF-7 cancer cells at a concentration of 89.15 ug / nl (IC 90) (Harfia, 2006). Hexane extract of this plant was evaluated cytotoxic activity against in vitro culture of murine leukemia cells P388 and showed weak IC (50) 15 µg / ml (Choo et al., 2001).

Four pheophorbide-related compounds, namely pheophorbide-a, pheophorbide-a ‘, pyropheophorbide-and-a methyl pyropheophorbide been identified in the most active fraction, D/F19. These constituents have antiproliferative activity against NCI-H23 (lung cancer) and HS578T (breast cancer) cell lines and increased activity after photoactivation. However, greater antiproliferative activity exhibited by D/F19 own compared to pheophorbides and other subfraksi show some form of synergistic action between the constituents. Inhibitory influence D/F19 and pheophorbides is apoptosis in the absence of light (Lai et al., 2010).

Eight plants were tested, namely Herba Polygonis Hydropiperis (Laliaocao), Folium Murraya Koenigii (Jialiye), Rhizoma Arachis hypogea (Huashenggen), Herba Houttuyniae (Yuxingcao), Epipremnum pinnatum (Pashulong), Rhizoma Typhonium Flagelliforme (Laoshuyu), Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis (Houpo) and Rhizoma Imperatae (Baimaogen) antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. The results show extracts of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis, Folium Murraya Koenigii, Herbs and Herbal Houttuyniae Polygonis Hydropiperis showed higher nature of antioxidant than other test plants. While Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis showed the highest antioxidant properties and antimicrobial (Chan et al., 2008).

Pharmacological action of rodent tuber has been investigated by Zhong et al (2001). All extracts water, alcohols and esters rodent tuber extract has the effect of relieving cough, eliminating phlegm, antiasthmatic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and sedative. Maximum tolerance to acute toxicity was 720 g / kg (water extract), 900 g / kg (alcoholic extract) 3.240 g / kg (extract esters).

 

References:

Harfia, M., 2006, Uji Aktivitas Ekstrak Etanol 50% Umbi Keladi Tikus (Typhonium flagelliforme (Lood) Bl) terhadap Sel Kanker Payudara (MCF-7 Cell line) secara In-Vitro, Puslitbang Biomedis dan Farmasi, Badan Litbang Kesehatan.

Contributors : Sarmoko, Fany Mutia Cahyani