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Leunca (Solanum nigrum L.)

Leunca (Solanum nigrum L.)

1. Name of Plants

Local name : Leunca (Sunda), Ranti (Jawa), anti, Bobosa (Maluku)

Foreign name : long kui (Tiong Hoa), enab el-deeb (Arab)

Latin name : Solanum nigrumL.

Synonym : S. fistolosum Rich, S. nodiflorum Jacq. Solanum guineense (L) Lam. (Iwu, 1993; Wijayakusuma, 2005).

 2. Classification of Plants

 Kingdom : Plantae (Tumbuhan)

Subkingdom : Tracheobionta (Tumbuhan berpembuluh)

Super Division : Spermatophyta (Menghasilkan biji)

Division : Magnoliophyta (Tumbuhan berbunga)

Class : Magnoliopsida (berkeping dua/dikotil)

Sub Class : Asteridae

Order : Solanales (suku terung-terungan)

Family : Solanaceae

Genus : Solanum

Species : Solanum nigrumL. (Kartesz, 2004)

3. Description of Plants

This plant belongs to the class of the bush, with a height of approximately 1.5 m. Has a taproot with a brownish-white color. Stem upright, round, soft, and green. Single leaf, oval, and scattered with 5-7.5 cm long ; 2.5-3.5 cm wide. Tapered leaf base and tip with flat edge. Bone pinnate leaves. The leaves have long stalks with ± 1 cm and green. Flowers form of compound interest with a small crown, star wake, white, stamens kehijaunan the number of 5 pieces. Flower stalks pale green and hairy. Fruit is round, green when young, black and shiny if it is old about the size of peas. Seeds are round flat, small, and white.

4. Usefulness in society

It is known that leunca (Solanum nigrum L.) containing material as an antiseptic, anti-inflammatory and anti-dysentery (Heiser 1969; Vogel 1990). According to Akhtar and Mohammad (1989) that the pollen of the plant can be as ulcerogenik. It also can be used as an antimalarial (Watt and Breyer-Brandwijk,1962)

The seeds can be used for the treatment of gonorrhea and dysuria (Jain and Borthakur, 1986). Tandon and Rao (1974) reported that fruit and juice can cure stomach ailments and fever while the shoots can be used for skin diseases. In addition, flowers and leaves can be used as a fever and resist the effects of alcohol overdose (Heiser, 1963). The juice of its leaves is used as an anthelmintic, joint pain and ear ache (Grieve, 1931).

5. Chemical Ingredients and Benefits

Leunca (Solanum nigrum L.) contain solanine, solasonine, solamargine dan chaconine (Everist, 1974; Wetter and Phipps, 1979; Cooper and Johnson, 1984). As well known in leunca immature fruit contains steroidal alkaloids solasodine and steroidal sapogenin diosgenin and tigogenin. Pushpa Khanna and Rathore (1977) reported that there is a significant content of diosgenin (1.2%) and solasodine (0.65%) on fruit leunca (Solanum nigrum L.) were still green (immature). The structure of a wide variety of metabolites produced from Solanum nigrumL. can be seen in the figure 2.

Figure 2. Chemical structure α-Solanine (a), solasonine (b), solamargine (c),α-chaconine (d), solasodine (e), diosgenin (f) dan tigogenin (g) (Kanaya, 2000)

Saijo et al. (1982) examine the fruit Leunca (Solanum nigrum L) Immature containing steroidal glycosides are proto-desgalactotigonin, desgalactotigonin and tigogenin3-O-β-D-glucopyra-nosyl-(1->2)-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1->3)]-β-Dglucopyranosyl-(1->4)-β-D-galactopyranoside (Figure 3).

 

Figure 3. Chemical structure of desgalactotigonin (R=H) dan tigogenin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1->2)-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1->3)]-β-Dglucopyranosyl-(1->4)- β-D-galactopyranoside (R=CH2OH) (Ikeda, 2000)

Then in 2000, Ikeda isolate from whole plant leunca (Solanum nigrum L.) And earned 2 oligoglikosida steroidal compounds are cytotoxic and anti-herpes activity that is nigrumnin nigrumnin I and II (Figure 4).

 

Figure 4. Chemical structure Nigrumnin I (R1=H2 ; R2=H) and Nigrumnin II (R1=O; R2=OH) (Ikeda, 2000)

It can be known through β-2-solamargine isolated from Solanum nigrum L. shown to have cytotoxic to tumor cells HT-29 (colon), HCT-15 (colon), LNCaP (prostate), PC-3 (prostate), T47D (breast), and MDA-MB-231 (breast) in in vitro assays. Meanwhile, the cytotoxic test indicates that the main content of anticancer compounds at Solanum nigrum L. is solamargine (Hu, 1999). Solamargin known to modulate protein and bcl-2 TNFRs, and potential as an anticancer agent for cancer cells that were resistant TNFs and Bcl-2 (Liu, 2004). In addition solamargine downregulated HER2 and increasing regulation and expression of Fas tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) thus promoting cell-mediated apoptotic pathway and sensitize mitochondria nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) H441 dan A549. (Liang, 2008). Solanine were isolated from leunca able to induce apoptosis in liver cancer cells HepG (2) through decreased expression of Bcl-2 are indicated by western blot (Ji, 2008).

7. Mechanism of Anticancer Research

Leunca ethanolic extracts at higher doses (2 and 5 mg / mL) can induce apoptosis of HepG2 liver cancer cells through increased expression of p-JNK and Bax, cytochrome c release, and caspase activation (Lin et al, 2007). As well as the same cancer cells studied solanine contained in leunca extract induces apoptosis also through decreased expression of Bcl-2 (Ji et al., 2008). Then exposed for 2 hours glycoprotein isolated from leunca sitosoksik showed activity in colon cancer cells HT-29 on IC50 40 µg/mL. As well as increasing the expression of the mitochondrial cytochrome C, destruction of pro-caspase -9, pro-caspase-3, dan poly(ADP-ribose) protein polymerase (PARP) in HT-29 cell (Lee et al., 2005). Then in other studies using isolation glycoprotein extracted leunca in HT-29 cells can also stimulate the expression of protein kinase C (PKC) and nuclear factor (NF)kappaB through western blot analysis (Lim, 2005). Additionally ethanolic extract leunca mature fruit can inhibit the proliferation of breast cancer cells MCF-7 through apoptosis, demonstrated by the increasing number of DNA fragmentation (Son et al.,2003).

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Contributor: Raditya Prima Istiaji