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Rumput Lidah Ular (Hedyotis diffusa Willd.)

Rumput lidah ular (Hedyotis diffusa Willd.)

1. Name of Plant

· Latin Name: Hedyotis diffusa Willd

· Synonym: Oldenlandia diffusa (Willd.)

· Local Name: lidah tiong (Jawa), ulasiman kalat, daniri (Thailand), Bai Hua She She Cao (Cina) (Graham, 2000).

 

2. Classification of Plant

Division: Spermatophyta

Sub Division: Angiospermae

Class: Dicotyledoneae

Order: Rubiales

Family: Rubiaceae

Genus: Hedyotis

Species: Hedyotis diffusa Willd

 

3. Morphology of Plant

Terna, seasonal crops, creeping plant or little upright, height 10- 20 cm. Round stem, segmented, from the segment that stuck in the ground are grow root, slippery, greenish yellow or reddish green. Single leaf, crossed dealing, line shaped, length 2-4 cm, width 2-3 mm, the tip and the base are pointed, serrated edge, not stemmed, smooth surface, green. Single flower, located in axillary, green petals, 4 strand, ravel, length 1-2 mm, the tip of crown flower are ravel, base forming a tube, contain from 4 strand, length 2-3 mm, ivory white color. Single fruit, round shape with tip pointed former petals, diameter 2-3 mm, redish green with the seed in the fruit lancet formed, small, brown. Root fiber, yellowish white.

4. Efficacy

Urine laxative, lowering fever, anti-bacteria, anti inflammation, snake venom antidote, central nervous system drug, and anti cancer: breast cancer, leukemia, and liver cancer.

5. Chemical Ingredients and benefit of plant

Herb Hedyotis diffusa contain saponin, flavonoid, polifenol, triterpen, polisakarida, glikosida antrakuinon, stearat acid, oleanolat acid, trans p-kumarat acid, ursolat acid, and sitosterol. Ethanolic extract of herb lidah ular can press peroxidation lipid in homogenat liver cell amount 1,05% and in mitochondria of heart cell amount 51,61% (Liao et al, 2000). Content of glikosida flavonoid in lidah ular are kaemferol and quercetin show neuroprotective against culture cell rats cotical that treated in 1-glutamat (Kim et al., 2000).

6. Anticancer Mechanism Research

Yadav et al. (2007) reported that ethanolic extract of lidah ular plant stimulate apoptosis of  leukemia cell HL60 through caspase activity by explosion of peroxide intracellular. Compound metil-anthraquinone in lidah ular can mediating apoptosis in human breast cancer cell namely MCF-7 through path Ca2+/calpain/caspase-4 (Liu et al., 2009). Two compound of anthraquinone that found in lidah ular there are 2-hidroksi-3-metilantrakuinon and 1-metoksi-2-hidroksiantrakuinon have induction apoptosis activity in cancer cell SPC-1-A, Bcap37, and HepG2 through mitochondria apoptosis path with the enhancement of caspase-3 activity as the result of mitochondria membrane potency (Shi et al., 2008).

Stearat acid has an apoptosis effect in human hepatoma cell, HepG2 and Hep3B through cell population induction in phase G1, DNA fragmentation, membrane potential changing, and caspase precursor activation (Tang et al., 2007).

 


References:

Graham, J.G., Quinn, M.L., Fabricant, D.S., and Farnsworth, N.R., 2000, Plants Used Against Cancer – An Extension of The Work of Jonathan Hartwell, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 73:347–377

Kim Y., Park, E.J., Kim, J., Kim, Y.B., Kim, S.R., and Kim, Y.C., 2000, Neuroprotective Constituents from Hedyotis diffusa, J. Nat. Prod., 64 (1) 75–78

Liao, H.R., Bo, C.W., 2000, Vegetable Nutrient Liquid of Land Herb against Lipid Peroxidation on Rat Liver Homogenate and Heart Mitochondria, J Nutr ; 123, 1343-1348.

Liu, Z., Liu, M., Liu, M., and Li, J., 2009, Methylnthraquinon from Hedyotis diffusa WILLD Induces Ca(2+)-mediated Apoptosis in Human Breast Cancer Cells, Toxicology In Vitro, 29:456-464

Shi, Y., Wang, C.H., dan Gong, G.X., 2008, Apoptosis-Inducing Effects of Two Anthraquinones from Hedyotis diffusa WILLD., Biol. Pharm. Bull. 31(6) 1075—1078

Tang, P., et al, 2007, Apoptotic Effects of Stearic Acid an Active Compound Isolated from Oldenlandia diffusa, on Human Hepatoma Cells, Research Journal of Medical Sciences 1 (1) 30-38

Yadav, S.K., and Lee, S.C., 2006, Evidence for Oldenlandia diffusa Evoked Cancer Cell Apoptosis Through Superoxide Burst and Caspase Activation, Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine 4(5) 485-489

http://www.warintek.ristek.go.id/pangan_kesehatan/tanaman_obat/depkes/5-035.pdf