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Srikaya (Annona squamosa L.)

1.       Name of plant

Name    : Annona squamosa L.

Local name  :Srikaya

2. Classification

Division : Spermatophyta

Subdivision : Angiospermae

Class : Dicotyledonae

Ordo : Ranunculales

Family : Annonaceae

Genus : Annona

Species : Annona squamosa L. (Syamsuhidayat, 1991)

3. Description

Greyish thin bark, sap of the bark is toxic. Its stem is brownish (on the branch),  yellowish inside and slightly bitter. Brown with brownish spot on the branch, small lenticel like a round spot on its stem.

Single leaf, rigid branch, alternate. Leaves are oval – narrowed. Pointed at the end and base. Curved base, flat side, length 5-17 cm, width 2-7,5 cm, leaves surface is green, at the bottom is greenish, slightly hairy or leafless.  Bitter taste, little bit cold. Petiole length 0,4-2,2 cm

The flowers are clustered, short sideways. Length 2,5 cm, 2-4 flowers are dealing and the colour is yellowish. On the hairy long little stalk with length ± 2 cm, grown on the tip of the leaf stalk. Outer petals are green, purple on the bottom, longitudinal, its length 1,6 – 2,5 width 0,6-0,75.Inside of the petals are smaller or same.

There is a lot of pollen, clustered, white, length less than 1.6 cm, greenish pistil. Each pistil forms a kind of warts, length 1.3-1.9 cm, width 0.6 – 1.3 cm which grow into fruit groups. Flowering helped by nitidula beetle

Apparent fruit, ball or cone-shaped or resemble a heart, bumpy surface, green speckled white (pollen), diameter 5-10 cm, hanging on thick stalk. When ripe, the fruits will split off from one another, bluish green. Yellowish white flesh, sweet taste. Seeds longitudinal in each carpels, smooth, dark brown to black, length 1.3 – 1.6 cm. Ripe seeds shiny black.(Syamsuhidayat, 1991).

4. Chemical Ingredients

In general , plants contain squamosin , asimicin ( Taylor and Francis , 1999) , atherospermidine (Petasai, 1986), lanuginosin, asporfin type alkaloids (anonain ) and bisbenziltetrahidroisokinolin ( reticuline ) .There is found cyanogen compounds in plants organs. Ripe fruit pulp that has been found contain citrulline ,aminobutyric acid, ornithine, and arginin . Seeds contains polyketides compound and derivatebistetrahidrofuran ; acetogenin (squamostatin C , D , anonain , anonasin A , anonin 1 , IV , VI , VIII , IX , XVI , squamostatin A , bulatacyn , bulatacynon , squamon , neoanonin B , neo desasetilurarycyn , neo reticulacyn A , squamosten A , acmicyn , squamosin , sanonacyn , anonastatin , neoanonin ) . There are also squamosisnin A , squamocin B , C , D , E , F , G , H , I, J , K , L , M , N ; squamostatin B , fatty acid , amino acid and protein . fatty acid composition of seed oil fatty srikaya consisting of methyl palmitate , methyl stearate , methyl linoleate . The leaves contain alkaloids tetrahydroisokuinolin , p – hidroksibenzil – 6 ,7 – dihydroxy – 1 ,2,3,4 – tetrahidroisokinolin ( demetilkoklaurin = higenamin ) . Flowerscontaining kauric acid – 1 ,6 – ene – 1 ,9 – is informed as active  component of oat flower. Its roots contain flavonoids ,borneol , camphor , terpenes , alkaloids anonain , saponin , tannin , and polyphenols . The bark contains flavonoid ,borneol , camphor , terpenes , and alkaloids anonain . Immature fruit contains tannin.

Anticancer research

Acetogenin compounds ( squamostanin A , B , C , and D ) and annotemoyin – 1 and -2 , and cholesteryl glukopiranosid have cytotoxic effects on srikaya (Yang et al., 2009, Rahman et al., 2005) , platelet aggregation inhibitors (Yang et al., 2002) , inhibitors of HIV replication (Wu et al., 1996) , antidiabetic agents (antihyperglycemic ) and antioxidants (Kaleem et al., 2006, Panda and Kar, 2007) , pesticides (Jaswanth, 2002) , and can be used in the treatment of Neisseria gonorrhea ( Shokeen , 2005) . Squamosin on sarikaya serves as insecticides , while the content of ascimicins have antileukemia effect ( Taylor and Francais , 1999) . Caryophyllene oxide on the bark has analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity (Chavan, 2009) , and cyclosquamosin D shows J774A.1 inhibitory cytokine proinflammatory on macrophage -induced Pam3Cys (Yang, et al., 2008) .

Water and organic extracts of Annonasquamosa induce apoptosis on BC – 8 cells by inducing DNA fragmentation and activation of caspase – 3. Observation by flowcytometry showed the formation of apoptotic bodies after incubation of cells after treatment with the extract for 24 hours. In addition to activate of caspase – 3 , both extracts also regulate gene expression and BclBclXL that play a role in the induction of apoptosis ( Pardharasardhi et al . , 2004) .

 


References:

Jaswanth, A., 2002, Evaluation of mosquitocidal activity of Annona squamosa leaves against filarial vector mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus Say., Department of Pharmacology, Periyar College of Pharmaceutical Sciences for Girls, Tiruchirappalli, 620 021, India.

Hopp, D.C., 1996, Squamotacin: an annonaceous acetogenin with cytotoxic selectivity for the human prostate tumor cell line (PC-3), Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907-1333, USA.

M., Kaleem, 2006. Antidiabetic and antioxidant activity of Annona squamosa extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Life Sciences, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002, India.

P. Shookeen, 2005. Preliminary studies on activity of Ocimum sanctum, Drynaria quercifolia, and Annona squamosa against Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Ambedkar Center for Biomedical Research, University of Delhi, Delhi, India.

Syamsuhidayat, Sri Sugati, and Johnny Ria Hutapea, 1991, Inventaris Tanaman Obat Indonesia (I), Departemen Kesehatan RI, Jakarta.

S., Panda, 2007, Antidiabetic and antioxidative effects of Annona squamosa leaves are possibly mediated through quercetin-3-O-glucoside, School of Life Sciences, Devi Ahilya University, Takhshila Campus, Indore-452017, Madhya Pradesh, India.

Y.C., Wu, 1996, Identification of ent-16 beta, 17-dihydroxykauran-19-oic acid as an anti-HIV principle and isolation of the new diterpenoids annosquamosins A and B from Annona squamosa, Graduate Institute of Natural Products, Kaohsiung Medical College, Taiwan, Republic of China.

Y.L., Yang, 2002, New ent-kaurane diterpenoids with anti-platelet aggregation activity from Annona squamosa, Graduate Institute of Natural Products, Kaohsiung Medical University, Taiwan, Republic of China.

Harborne, 1999, Phytochemical Dictionary Second Edition, Taylor and Francis.

Petasai, M.S., 1986, Thesis, Fac.Pharm.Sci., Chulalongkorn Univ., Bangkok.

M.J., Chavan, Wakte P.S., and Shinde D.B., 2009, Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of caryophyllene oxide from Annona squamosa L. bark., Phytomedicine,

Yang Y.L., Hua K.F., Chuang P.H., Wu S.H., Wu K.Y., Chang F.R., and Wu Y.C., 2008, New cyclic peptides from the seeds of Annona squamosa L. and their anti-inflammatory activities., J Agric Food Chem, 23;56(2):386-92.

Yang H., Zhang N., Li X., He L., and Chen J., 2009, New nonadjacent bis-THF ring acetogenins from the seeds of Annona squamosa., Fitoterapia.

Yang H.J., Li X., Zhang N., Chen J.W., Wang M.Y., 2009, Two new cytotoxic acetogenins from Annona squamosa., J Asian Nat Prod Res. 11(3):250-6.

Mukhlesur Rahman M., Parvin S., Ekramul Haque M., Ekramul Islam M., and Mosaddik M.A., 2005, Antimicrobial and cytotoxic constituents from the seeds of Annona squamosa, Fitoterapia.76(5):484-9.

Kontributor : Anindyajati, Rita Riata

Editor: Sarmoko, Nur Asyiah

Greyish thin bark, sap of the bark is toxic. Its stem is brownish (on the branch),  yellowish inside and slightly bitter. Brown with brownish spot on the branch, small lenticel like a round spot on its stem.

Single leaf, rigid branch, alternate. Leaves are oval – narrowed. Pointed at the end and base. Curved base, flat side, length 5-17 cm, width 2-7,5 cm, leaves surface is green, at the bottom is greenish, slightly hairy or leafless.  Bitter taste, little bit cold. Petiole length 0,4-2,2 cm

The flowers are clustered, short sideways. Length 2,5 cm, 2-4 flowers are dealing and the colour is yellowish. On the hairy long little stalk with length ± 2 cm, grown on the tip of the leaf stalk. Outer petals are green, purple on the bottom, longitudinal, its length 1,6 – 2,5 width 0,6-0,75.Inside of the petals are smaller or same.

There is a lot of pollen, clustered, white, length less than 1.6 cm, greenish pistil. Each pistil forms a kind of warts, length 1.3-1.9 cm, width 0.6 – 1.3 cm which grow into fruit groups. Flowering helped by nitidula beetle

Apparent fruit, ball or cone-shaped or resemble a heart, bumpy surface, green speckled white (pollen), diameter 5-10 cm, hanging on thick stalk. When ripe, the fruits will split off from one another, bluish green. Yellowish white flesh, sweet taste. Seeds longitudinal in each carpels, smooth, dark brown to black, length 1.3 – 1.6 cm. Ripe seeds shiny black.