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Jeruk Mandarin/Mandarin Oranges (Citrus reticulata)

a.Morphology of Plants
This plant is a type of tree with a height of 2-8 meters. Very narrow winged petiole up virtually wingless, length0,5-1,5 cm. Leaf blade ovate-shaped elongated, elliptis or lancet-shaped with a blunt edge, curved into a slight, jagged edges are very weak with length 3,5-8 cm. The flowers have a diameter1,5-2,5 cm, androgynous white crown leaves. The fruit is spherical depressed, with a length of 5-8 cm, thick-skinned0,2-0,3 cm and orange flesh. Branches not thorny and, stalk leaves 1-1.5 mm wide(Van Steenis, 1975).

 

b. Classification of Plants
According toBacker dan Bakhhuizen (1965), Classification of Citrus reticulata can be described as follows:
Kingdom : Plantae
Division : Magnoliophyta
Class : Magnoliopsida
Subclass : Rosidae
Order : Sapindales
Family : Rutaceae
Genus : Citrus
Species : Citrus reticulata

 

c. Nama tumbuhan
Nama latin : Citrus reticulata
Sinonim : Citrus nobilis, C. deliciosa,C.chrysocarpa
Nama lokal : jeruk keprok, jeruk jepun, jeruk maseh.

d.Chemical content and benefits
Orange peelCitrus reticulata have a wide variety of compounds includingTangeraxanthin, Tangeritin, Terpinen-4-ol, Terpineolene, Tetradecanal, Threonine, Thymol, Thymyl- methyl-ether, Tryptophan, Tyrosine, Cis-3-hexenol, Cis-carveol, Citric-acid, Citronellal, Citronellic-acid, Citronellyl-acetate, Cystine, Decanal, Decanoic- acid, Decanol, Nobiletin. One of the compounds in orange peel Tangerines (Citrus reticulata) who has done research on anti-cancer activity is tangeritin. Tangeretin and nobiletin is methoxyflavone compounds that have potential as an anticancer agent. Tangeretin can inhibit the activity of cancer cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle so that inhibited. Pan et al.,(2002) reported that flavonoids polimetoksi (tangeretin) contained in the orange peel, can induce G1 arrest with an increase in the expression of CDK inhibitors such as p27, p21 in colon cancer cell line(COLO 205). Nobiletin can inhibit the action of COX-2 by inhibition of murine macrophage.

gambar 1. Struktur Tangeritin dan Nobiletin (Murakami et al., 2000)

e.Habitat and Spread
Is native to the Malay but is now very widely spread in almost all tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Optimum temperature between25-30 oC however there are still able to grow normally on 38 oC. Tangerines require temperature20oC. All types of citrus do not like a place protected from sunlight. The optimum moisture for plant growth is around 70-80%(Rahardi, 1999)

References:

Backer, C.A. and Bakhhuizen v.d. Brink, R.C. (1965). Flora of Java, Vol. II. N.V.P, Noordhoff, Groningen.

Pan, M. H., Chen, W. J., Shiau, S. Y. L., Ho, C. T., and Lin, J. K.(2002). ‘Tangeretin Induced Cell Cycle G1 Arrest through Inhibiting Cyclin Dependent Kinases 2 and 4 Activities as well as Elevating Cdk Inhibitor p21 and p27 in Human Colorectal Carcinoma Cell’, Carcinogenesis, 23 (10): 1677-1684.

Rahardi, Yovita H. I., Haryono.(1999). Agribisnis Tanaman Buah, Penebar Swadaya, Jakarta.

Contributors : Mita Ardiani, Nanda Puspita, Edison Chrisnanto and Endang Sulistyorini S.P