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Jeruk Nipis / Lemon (Citrus aurantiifolia)

Jeruk Nipis / Lemon (Citrus aurantiifolia)

1. Name of Plant

Citrus aurantifolia (Cristm.) Swingle plants known on the island of Sumatra by the name Kelangsa (Aceh), Java is known as lime (Sunda) and orange pecel (Java), on the island of Borneo known as lemau Nepi, on the island of Sulawesi with the name, lemo ape, lemo kapasa (Bugis) and lemo kadasa (Makasar), di Maluku dengan naman puhat em nepi (Buru), ahusi hisni, aupfisis (Seram), inta, lemonepis, ausinepsis, usinepese (Ambon) and Wanabeudu (Halmahera) whereas in the southeastern Nusa called jeruk alit, kapulungan, lemo (Bali), dangaceta (Bima), mudutelong (Flores), mudakenelo (Solor) and delomakii (Rote).

Synonym : Limonia aurantifolia Christm., Limon spinosum Mill., Citrus limonia Osbeck, Citrus lima Luman, Citrus spinosissima G.F.W. Meyer, Citrus acida Roxb., Citrus aurantium

b. Classification of Plants
Kingdom : Plantae
Division : Spermatophyta
Subdivision : Angiospermae
Class : Dicotyledonae
Order : Rutales
Family : Rutaceae
Genus : Citrus
Species : Citrus aurantiifolia (Cristm.) Swingle

3, Morphology of Plants

 

Lime including one type of citrus Geruk. Lime including the type of herbaceous plant that has many branches and twigs. The height 0,5-3,5 m. Woody trunk tenacious, thorny, and hard. Medium dark colored outer skin surface and dull. The leaves are compound, ellipse-shaped with a rounded base, blunt tip and serrated edge. Leaves reaching 2.5 to 9 cm long and 2-5 cm in width. While bone pinnate leaves with winged stalks, green and 5-25 mm wide.
The flowers measuring plural / singular leaves that grow in the armpits or on the end of the rod with a diameter of 1.5-2.5 cm. petals shaped like a bowl sharing 4-5 with a diameter of 0.4-0.7 cm yellowish white colored and white cylindrical stalk yellowish pistil. Corolla numbered 4-5, oval or oblong with 0.7 to 1.25 cm long and 0.25-0.5 cm wide white colored
Lime plants at the age of 2 1/2 years has begun to bear fruit. The fruit is a round of ping-pong ball with a diameter of 3.5-5 cm colored (outer skin) green or yellowish. Lime plants have a taproot. Old lime fruit sour taste. Citrus plants generally like places to obtain direct sunlight.

4. The content and properties of herbs

Orange juice contains elements of useful chemical compounds, For example: citric acid, amino acids (tryptophan, lysine), essential oils (citral, limonene, felandren, lemon camphor, kadinen, Gerani-lasetat, linali-lasetat, aktilaldehid, nonildehid), resin, glycosides, citric acid, fat, calcium, phosphorus, iron, sulfur, vitamin B1 and C. In addition, lemon also contains saponins and flavonoids compounds hesperidin (hesperetin 7-rutinosida), tangeretin, naringin, eriocitrin, eriocitrocide. Hesperidin useful for anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and inhibits prostaglandin synthesis. Hesperidin also inhibited azoxymethane (AOM) which induce carcinogenesis in the colon of rabbits, and also inhibits N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxy-butyl) nitrosamine-induced urinary bladder carcinogenesis in rats (Chang, 2001). Lemon juice also contains 7% of essential oils containing citral, limonene, fenchon, terpineol, bisabolene, and other terpenoids. Guo, et al. (2006) has been observed that D-Limonene can inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in HL-60 cells and K562 cells.
Lemon efficacious as cough medicine, fever medicine, and medicine stiff. Additionally, lemon is also useful as a cure dysentery, constipation, hemorrhoids, menstrual irregularities, diphtheria, acne, dizziness / vertigo, hoarseness cough, increase appetite, prevent hair loss, dandruff, flu / fever, stop smoking, tonsils, Anyang-anyangan disease, nosebleeds, nasal inflammation (sap), and so forth.

5. Regarding research Naringin and Hesperidin
Del Leo and Del Bosco (2005 states that naringin and hesperidin have inhibitory effect of cancer cell proliferation, postpone tumorigenesis, carcinogenesis and chemopreventive agents. Moreover, hesperidin can reduce lipopolysaccharide to induce hepatotoxicity in rat liver. Another study done by Zhang et al (2007) states that, hesperidin has cytotoxic effects on B16 melanoma cells in mice. In the magazine Grapefruit juice and medications, naringin can inhibit CYP3A4 and CYP1A2 enzyme boosters as carcinogenic compounds.

References:

Chang, L.C. and Kinghorn, A.D., (2001), ‘Flavonoid as Cancer Chemopreventive Agents’. in : Trigali, C, Bioactive Compounds from Natural Sources, Isolation, Characterisation and Biological Properties, Taylor and Francis, New York.

De Leo, F. & Del Bosco, F.S. (2005). Citrus Flavonoids as Bioactive Compounds: Role, Bioavailability, Socio-Economic Impact and Biotechnological Approach For Their Modification, 9th ICABR International Conference on Agricultural Biotechnology: Ten Years Later, Ravello, Italy.

Guo, X.M., Lu, Q., Liu, Z.J., Wang, L.F., Feng, B. A. (2006). ‘Effects of D-limonene on leukimia cells HL-60 and K562 in vitro’, Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi. 14(4):692-5.

Zhang, C., Lu, Y., Tao, L., Su, X., Wei, D. (2007). ‘Tyrosinase inhibitory effects and inhibition mechanisms of nobiletin and hesperidin from citrus peel crude extracts’, J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 22(1):91-8.

Contributors : Anugerah Budipratama Adina, Fransiscus Feby Handoko, Indah Ikawati Setyarini, and Endang Sulistyorini, S.P