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Jeruk Keprok / Tangerines (Citrus reticulata)

Figure 1. Tangerines Fruits

 

Figure 2. Tangerines Plants

 

a.Morphology of Plants
This plant is a type of tree with a height of 2-8 meters. Petiole very narrowly winged to be said not winged, length 0.5-1.5 cm. Leaf blade ovate-shaped elongated, elliptis or lancet-shaped with blunt ends, curved into a slight, serrated edge is very weak with 3.5 to 8 cm long. The flowers have a diameter of 1.5-2.5 cm, androgynous white crown leaves. The fruit is spherical depressed with a length of 5-8 cm, thick-skinned0,2-0,3 cm and orange flesh. Branches not thorny and stalk leaves 1-1.5 mm wide(Van Steenis, 1975)

 

b.Classification of Plants
Classification of Citrus reticulata. in plant systematics (Van Steenis, 1975)
Division : Spermatophyta
Subdivision : Angiospermae
Class : Dicotyledonae
Order : Rutales
Family : Rutaceae
Genus : Citrus
Species : Citrus reticulata

 

c.Name of Plant
Latin Name: Citrus reticulata
Synonym : Citrus nobilis, C. deliciosa, C. chrysocarpa
Local Name : jeruk Keprok, jeruk Jepun, jeruk Maseh
(Verheij dan Coronel, 1992)

d.Chemical Ingredients and Benefits of Plants
Orange peel Citrus reticulata has a wide variety of compounds, includingTangeraxanthin, Tangeritin, Terpinen-4-ol, Terpineolene, Tetradecanal, Threonine, Thymol, Thymyl- methyl-ether, Tryptophan, Tyrosine, Nobiletin, Cis-3-hexenol, Cis-carveol, Citric-acid, Citronellal, Citronellic-acid, Citronellyl-acetate, Cystine, Decanal, Decanoic- acid, Decanol. Compounds in orange peel Tangerines (Citrus reticulata) who has done research on anti-cancer activity is tangeritin and nobiletin.Tangeritin is methoxyflavone compounds that have potential as an anticancer agent. In vitro research showed suppression of the cancer cells by inducing apoptosis in leukemia cells. Tangeritin can inhibit the activity of cancer cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle so that hampered(Anonim4, 2006). Pan dkk., (2002) reported that flavonoids polimetoksi (tangeretin) contained in the orange peel, can induce G1 arrest with an increase in the expression of CDK inhibitors such as p27, p21 in colon cancer cell line(COLO 205)

figure 3. The chemical structure Nobiletin


Figure 4. Tangeritin structure

 

 

Nobiletin polymethoxyflavon is a compound that was first tested in vivo anticancer activity (Tang et al, 2007). Nobiletin can inhibit the action of COX-2 by inhibition of murine macrophages and may inhibit skin cancer induction by dimethylbenz [a] antracen (Murakami et al, 2000). In the same research reported nobiletin can also inhibit the growth of prostate cancer cells with IC50 values 100 μM. Nobiletin and induces arrest Cells. In breast cancer cells and colorectal carcinoma, Tangeretin has IC50 37 uM and IC50 100 uM while Nobiletin,antiproliferative effects on cancer cells showed the same higher activity with IC50 30 uM and IC50 40 uM (Morley, 2007).

e.Habitat and distribution
Tangerine is Malay native plants but is now very widely spread in almost all tropical and subtropical regions of the world.Optimum temperature between25-30oC however there are still able to grow normally on 38oC. Tangerines require temperature20oC. All types of citrus do not like a place protected from sunlight. The optimum moisture for plant growth is about 70-80% (Rahardi et al.,1999).

References:

Van Steenis, C.G., 1975, Flora Voor de Scholen in Indonesie, diterjemahkan oleh Sorjowinoto, M., edisi VI, PT. Pradnya Paramitha, Jakarta.

Contributors : Perdana Adhi Nugroho,Diah Ayu Putri K.W., Andita Pra Darma and Endang Sulistyorini S.P