Menu

Cancer

Cancer is a cells disease that characterized by lost of the cell control function against cell cycle regulation as well as cell homeostatic function in multi-cellular organism. With the failure, cell cannot proliferate normally. Consequently, cells will proliferate continuous so that generate abnormal tissue growth.

Cancer growth is a micro-evolutionary process which can last for several months or several years. This growth process is called carcinogenesis. Efforts to remedy the cancer disease is very difficult because of the molecular mechanism complexity that accompanying.   

With the development of molecular biology, science about molecular mechanism that can trigger cancer can happen too. Thus, can be known various alternative tracks that can take to develop medicine for cancer therapy.

According to Hanahan and Weinberg (2000), cancer cells have characteristic as follows:

  1. Cancer cells can sufficient its own growth signal requirement. Growth signal is needed in order to cell can split continuously. Different from normal cells, cancer cells can stay and continue to grow.
  2. Not sensitive to anti-growth signal. Cancer cells are not responding with signal that can stop the cells growth and fusion. Thus, cancer cells can fusion continuously.  
  3. Cancer cell can avoid from apoptosis mechanism. Apoptosis is cell suicide program when the cells damage, both structural and functional, that cannot be tolerate again. But cancer cells can avoid from the death with blocking the track of apoptosis happen in the cells.
  4. Cancer cells have unlimited potency for conducting replication.
  5. Cancer cells can induct angiogenesis to meet the need for oxygen and nutrition. In the tumor development level that hyper-proliferative, tumor cells will express protein proangiogenic so that new branch will formed in blood vessel to the cancer cells which will then supply nutritional needs and oxygen from cancer cells.
  6. Cancer cells can invasion tissue around and shaping the child scatter plot.

The Cancer Medicine that have been Developed

Nowadays, some anticancer medicine that have been developed which include medicine that stimulate cells differentiation so that will happen change of nature from cancer cells that malignant become tame cells, medicine that can enhance radiation effectiveness and medicine which change cancer cells immune response with healthy.

Furthermore, a lot of medicine which developed based on the molecular activity from cancer cells. But, that medicine experience problems in resistance and medicine tolerance also its own medicine selectivity beside from various side effect that can be caused. 

Various Kind of Medicine that has Used Widely in Cancer Therapy

Number Group Sub Group Medicine

1

Alkilator Nitrogen mustard
Derivates etilenamin
Alkyl sulfonate
Nitrosourea
Mekloretamin, Cyclophosphamide, Chlorambusil, Uracil Mustard.
Triethylene Melamine (TEM), Tio triethylene fosfamid (tio-TEPA)
Busulfan
Carmustine (BCNU), Lomustine (CCNU), Semustin (methyl CCNU)

2

Antimetabolit Pyrimidine analog
Purine analog
Folate antagonists
5-Fluorouracil, Cytarabine, 6-Azauridin, Floksuridin (FUDR).
6-Mercaptopurine, 6-Tioguanid (T6)
Methotrexate (MTX)

3

Antibiotic Daktinomisin, Mitomycin, anthracyclines (Doxorubicin, Daunorubicin), Mitamisin, Bleomycin

4

Hormone Hormone adrenokortikosteroid
Progestin
Estrogen
Inhibitor Estrogen
Androgen
Inhibitor Androgen
Prednisone
Hydroxyprogesterone Caproate, Hydroxyprogesterone Acetate, Megestrol Acetate
Diethylstilbestrol, Etinyl Estradiol
Tamoxifen
Testosterone Propionate, Fluoksimesteron
Flutamid

5

Isotope Radioactive Phosphor
Iodine
Natrium Phosphate (P32)
Natrium Iodide (I131)

6

Other Substituted urea
Derivatives metilhidrazin
similaar alkilator
Hydroxyurea
Procarbazine
Cisplatin

Various researches also have been done in order to use of natural compound for cancer therapy.  The researches develop continuously to find the optimal cancer medicine in therapy.

Various Kind of Natural Medicines that Potentially in Cancer Therapy

Number

Group Compound

1

Vinca Alkaloids Vinblastine (VLR), Vincristine (VCR), Vindesin

2

Epipodofilotoksin Etoposide, Teniposid

3

Taxanes Paclitaxel, Docetaxel

4

Derivatives Kamfotekin Kamtotekin, Irinotekan