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HeLa Cell

Cell culture HeLa or HeLa cell line is a continuous cell line derived from cervical cancer epithelial cellsa women with cervical cancer named Henrietta Lacks who died of cancer in 1951 (Anonim, 2006a). These cell cultures have inherent spring properties (Anonim, 2000) and used as a model for studying cancer cells and cellular signal transduction (Anonim, 2006b). HeLa cells is quite safe and is commonly used human cell to cell culture interests (LabWork, 2000).
These cells by George Gey. These cells are treated as cancer cells that is believed to come from cervical cancer cells Ms.Lacks, however, the classification of these cells is still debated. HeLa immortal character who cannot die of old and can divide indefinitely as long as meet the basic conditions for the cells to remain alive are still there. New strains of HeLa cells have been developed in a variety of cell culture, but all HeLa cells derived from the same lineage. HeLa cells have been transformed as a result of infection with human papillomavirus 18 (HPV 18) and different from normal cervical cells (Anonim, 2006c).

HeLa cells can grow aggressively in the culture medium. The medium used was RPMI 1640-serum medium. It contains sufficient nutrients for growth, namely amino acids, vitamins, inorganic salts, and glucose. Serum contains added hormones that could stimulate cell growth. Albumin functions as a transport protein, lipids needed for cell growth, and minerals to function as an enzyme cofactor (Freshney, 1986).
HeLa cells are cervical cancer cells due to human papillomavirus infection(HPV 18) so as to have different properties with normal cervical cells. Cervical cancer cells infected by HPV known to express two oncogenes are E6 and E7. E6 and E7 proteins shown to cause the nature of immortal human keratinocytes in primary culture, These cells are immortal but non-tumorigenic to a genetic process occurs.Thus, the viral oncogenes are not directly induce tumor formation, but induces a series of processes that ultimately can lead to cancer properties (Goodwin dan DiMaio, 2000).

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Gambar 1. Cell morphology l were incubated in mHeLa (a) HeLa cells at a density 2X104/100 temperature of 370 l sample with a concentration series for 24 hours,mC with 100 reacted with MTT for about 6 hours, MTT will be broken by succinate tetrazolium reductase system formed formazan (b) The morphology of HeLa cells without treatment.

E6 and E7 proteins of HPV modulate cellular proteins that regulate the cell cycleE6 protein binds to tumor suppressor protein p53 and accelerates degradation of p53 which mediated  by ubiquitin. E6 protein also stimulates the activity of the enzyme telomerase. While the E7 protein can bind to the hipofosforilated active form of p105Rb and other members of the Rb family. This bond led to destabilization and rupture of Rb complexes act Rb/E2F that suppress the transcription of genes required for cell cycle progression (DeFilippis, et al., 2003).
The majority of cervical cancer cells, including HeLa cells, and the p53 gene have p105Rb in the form of wild-type. Thus, growth regulatory genes are active in normal cells is also present in cervical cancer cells. However, its activity is inhibited by the expression of E6 and E7 proteins of HPV
(Goodwin dan DiMaio, 2000).

References :

Anonim, 2006a, Apoptosis Extrinsic and Intrinsic Pathways, http://www.upstate.com/features/apop_pathway.asp

Anonim, 2006b, Hela Cell, www.answers.com/topic/hela

Anonim, 2006c, Hela is also The German Name for Hel, Poland and The Cruiser SMS Hela, Wikipedia the Free Encyclopedia, Wikimedia Foundation, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HeLa, diakses tanggal 20 Januari 2006.

DeFillippis, R.A., Goodwin, E.C., Wu, L., DiMaio, D., 2003, Endogenous Human Papillomavirus E6 and E7 Proteins Differentially Regulate Proliferation, Senescence, and Apoptosis in Hela Cervical Carcinoma Cells, Journal of Virology, Vol.77, no.2, 1551-1563.

Freshney, R.I., 1986, Animal Cell Culture, A Practical Approach, 1st Ed, IRL Press, Washington D.C.

Goodwin, E.C., DiMaio, D., 2000, Repression of human papillomavirus oncogenes in Hela cervical carcinoma cells causes the orderly reactivation of dormant tumor suppressor pathways, Biochemistry, Vol.97, no.23.
Labwork Study Guideand Lecture Notes, 2000, Henrietta Lacks, www.micro.msb.le.ac.uk/Labwork/Lack 1.htm.

Contributors :

Andrea Thea Rosita, Titi Ratna Wijayanti, Esti Widayanti dan Adam Hermawan.