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Sambang Colok (Aerva sanguinolenta(L.)

 

Sambang Colok (Aerva sanguinolenta L.)


1. Name of Plant
Plant : Aerva sanguinolenta (L.) Bl.
Synonyms: Achyranthes sanguinolenta L., Achyranthes scandens Roxb., Aerva scandens (Roxb.) Moq., Aerva timorensis Moq., Aerva velutina Moq.
Nama daerah : Ki sambang (Sunda), Sambang colok (Jawa), Rebha et raedhan (Madura).
(Sudarman, 1975)

2. Classification

Division : Spermatophyta
Sub division : Angiospermae
Classis : Dicotyledonae
Order : Carryophyllales
Family : Amaranthaceae
Genus : Aerva
Species : Aerva sanguinolenta (L.) Bl.
(Backer and Bakhuizen van den Brink, 1965)

3. Morphology of plant

Upright herb, height 0,5-2 m, round shaped stalk with woody base, segmented, purplish red,  and ramify. Single leaves, red, stalked, faced, leaf blade rounded shape, split ends, flat edge, base tapered, bone pinnate leaves, shiny on the upper side, short haired, length 2-8 cm, width 1-5 cm and petiole length 1-6 cm. Compound flower, form of grain, in the axillary, length 0,75-10 cm, dioecious, the base of stalk pollen attached, bowl shape, two anthers, short small pistil stalk, 1 stigma, 2 bulges, 5 flower jewelry, length + 2 mm, downy and white. Flat and black fruit. Small seed with black shine. Taproot and purplish red. (Backer and Bakhuizen van den Brink, 1965)

4. Habitat and spread
Grows wild in the yards and fields until as high as approximately 1000 m above sea level. There is in Africa, Malaysia, South China, Filipina, south part of Taiwan and Indonesia. In Indonesia, it spread in Java and Madura. It planted a lot in the yards as decorated plants.

5. Chemical Ingredients
Ingredients  that contain in sambang colok leaves are alkaloid compound, atsiri oil, and flavonoid (Restanti, 1992).

6. Benefit of Plant
Sambang colok leaves in general treatment used as irregular menstruation medicine, medication to relieve menstrual pain, urinary substandard medicine, gonorrhea medicine,  anemia medicine, vaginal discharge medicine, helminthic, and uterine inflammatory medicine (Sudarman, 1975).

7. Anticancer Research

Cytotoxic test result for MCF-7 cells show that ethanolic extract of sambang colok leaves have IC50 value amount 423 μg/ml whereas doxorubicin test in the same cell has IC50 value amount 327,6 nM. Synergistic (that CI < 0,9) appear in combination of extract ethanolic sambang colok leaves – doxorubicin concentration 211,7 μg/ml – 200 nM; 211,7 μg/ml – 150 nM; 158,8 μg/ml – 200 nM; dan 158,8 μg/ml – 150 nM. It show that synergic combination can occur in concentration under a half of IC50 value from ethanolic extract of sambang colok leaves or doxorubicin (Untung et al., 2008)

From apoptosis observe through DNA painting, can be known that obviously in single application both ethanolic extract sambang colok leaves and Doxo not enough significant for inhibit MCF-7 cells growth, but when application combination using combination concentration 211,7 ug/ml extract with 200 nM doxo (combination that can inhibit the greatest cell growth), a lot of cells that occur apoptosis. Etanolic extract of sambang colok leaves proven not enough toxic for cells, but if there chemotherapy agent like doxo so that stimulate apoptosis from that chemotherapy agent will occur stimulating. It certain very useful to decrease the doxorubicin chemotherapy dose for prevent its side effect until more than a half of that with combination ethanolic extract of sambang colok leaves. (Untung et al., 2008).

 


References:

Restanti, A.R., 1992, Skrining Fitokimia dan Pemeriksaan Mikroskopi Daun Sambang Colok (Aerva sanguinolenta Linn.), Skripsi, Fakultas Farmasi Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta

Untung, J., M.Fitria, L. Indriyani, E. P. Septiseptyani, dan R.I. Jenie, 2008, Ekstrak Etanolik Daun Samba Colok (Aerva sanguinolenta (L.) BI.) Sebagai penguat Pemacuan Apoptosis Doxorubicin pada sel MCF7, Proceeding Kongres Ilmiah XVI Ikatan Sarjana Farmasi Indonesia, ISBN: 978-979-95108-6-0, ISFI, pp. 117 – 123

Contributor : Sarmoko