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Dewandaru (Eugenia uniflora)


 

Eugenia uniflora Lam

1. Name of Plant
Plant : Eugenia uniflora L.
Synonym : Eugenia micnelii Lamk.
Local Name : Cereme asam (Melayu), Asem selong, belimbing londo, dewandaru (Jawa) (Hutapea, 1994).

 

2. Classification of Plant
Division : Spermatophyta
Subdivision : Angiospermae
Class : Dicotyledoneae
Order : Myrtales
Family : Myrtaceae
Genus : Eugenia
Species : Eugenia uniflora L.
(Hutapea, 1994)

3. Description of Plant

Eugenia uniflora plants shaped shrub grows annual with a height of more than 5 meters. The stem is upright woody, round and brown. Leaf-owned, green and a single leaf spread oval-shaped with a pointed tip and base tapered. Flat leaf edge, pertulangan pinnate with a length of more than 5 cm and a width of approximately 4 cm. This plant has a flower-shaped single androgynous with small leaves that are green protective. Bertaju petals three to five, stamen owned lot with white. Pistil-shaped slindris, makota flowers, nail-shaped and yellow. Eugenia uniflora flower form, fruit Buni round with a diameter of approximately 1.5 cm and red. Seeds hard, brown, and small. Owned brown roots and a taproot (Hutapea, 1994).

4. Habitat and Spread
Eugenia uniflora plants is widespread in the countries of South America, especially in Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, and Paraguay (Consolini and Sarubbio,2002). These plants spread in Indonesia to Sumatra and Java area (Hutapea, 1994).

5. Chemical Ingredients and Benefits of plants
Eugenia uniflora leaves contain flavonoid, saponin, and tanin (Hutapea, 1994). Flavonoid from the leaf extract, a myricetrin, myrcitrin, gallocatechin, quercetin, and quercitrin (Schmeda-Hirschmann et al, 1987). Tannin compound isolated from the active fraction Eugenia uniflora among others gallocatechin, oenothein B, eugeniflorins D(1) and D(2) (Lee et al, 2000).

Benefit of Plants
Eugenia uniflora fruits and leaves used as an astringent quality enhancer and reduce high blood pressure (Bandoni et al, 1972). Results decocta Eugenia uniflora leaves in Paraguai used to reduce cholesterol and blood pressure. It also can reduce lipid metabolism and can be used as a protective effect on triglycerides and lipoprotein levels were very low (Ferro et al., 1988).
Eugenia uniflora leaves as efficacious as traditional medicine diarrhea medicine (Hutapea, 1994). High anti infamasi action is also found in the Eugenia uniflora leaves (Scapoval et al., 1994). In Brazilian folk medicine, Eugenia uniflora fruits used as antidiarrheal, diuretics, antirheumatic, anti-febrile, and antidiabetic. In addition, Eugenia uniflora leaf extracts also as hypotensive agents (Consolini et al., 2000) and inhibits the increase in plasma levels of triglycerides and glucose (Matsumura et al., 2000).

g. Research about Eugenia uniflora Lam.
Eugenia uniflora Lam. is a plant that has good prospects for development as an anticancer drug. Several studies regarding the efficacy of Eugenia uniflora leaves as anticancer drugs have been conducted.
Cytotoxic test of Eugenia uniflora L against HeLa cells showed that ethyl acetate extract has a higher cytotoxic effect than ethanol and chloroform extracts. Cytotoxic test performed using the MTT method with a concentration series 5, 10, 25, 50, 125, 250 µg/ml. IC50 value  ethyl acetate extract 241,546 µg/ml and IC50 chloroform extract 244,906 µg/ml. While the ethanol extract, can not be determined its value of IC50 because it does not show the inhibitory potency against the growth of HeLa cells (Handayani, 2006).
Lee M.H. et al (2000) conduct research on the impact Eugenia uniflora L against Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is often associated with Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Four compounds of tanin in Eugenia uniflora L and IC50 owned that are gallocatechin (26,5 microM), oenothein B (62,3 microM), eugeniflorins D(1) (3,0 microM), and eugeniflorins D(2) (3,5 microM). Research results show that eugeniflorins D(1) and D(2) are compounds that have the highest potential in inhibiting DNA polymerase in EBV.

 

Daftar pustaka

Consolini, A.E., and Sarubbio, M.G., 2002, Pharmacological effects of Eugenia uniflora (Myrtaceae) aqueous crude extract on rats heart, Journal of Ethno pharmacology,81,57-63.

Ferro, E., A. Schinini, M. Maldonado, J. Rosner and G.S. Hirschman, 1988, Eugenia uniflora leaf extract and lipid metabolism in Cebus apella monkeys. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 24:321-325.

Hutapea, J.R., 1994, Inventaris Tanaman Obat Indonesia, Jilid III, Departemen Kesehatan RI dan Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan, 29-30.

Lee, M., Chiou, J., Yen, K., and Yang, L., 2000, EBV DNA polymerase Inhibition of tannins from Eugenia uniflora, Cancer Letters, 154, 131-136.

Matsumura, T., Kasai, M., Hayashi, T., Arisawa, M., Momose, Y., Arai, I., 2000, A Glucosidase inhibitors fromParaguay an Natural medicine, Nangapiry, the leaves of Eugenia uniflora, Pharmaceutical Biology, 38, 302-307.

Schmeda-Hirschmann, G., C. Theoduloz, L. Franco, E. Ferro and A. Rojas De Arias, 1987, Preliminary pharmacological studies on Eugenia uniflora leaves: xanthine oxi-dase inhibitory activity, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 21:183-186.

Kontributor : Nur Ismiyati, Endang Sulistyorini dan Rina Maryani